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If you want to find out all about your dream job, eCLIPS leaflets could be for you. Written for young people by careers experts, they will tell you all you need to know about what a job involves, what you could earn, how you get into it, related jobs and more.

Leaflets cover vital information on education, training and employment choices including: Year 9, 11 and 13 options; careers with your subjects, employability skills and apprenticeships. 

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Leaflet Description
A guide to qualifications This leaflet provides a broad overview of the qualifications available in England and Wales. It briefly describes why qualifications are valuable, the wide range on offer and, in general terms, how they compare with one another. Whatever the subject or level, a qualification is proof of your personal achievement.
Accommodation warden Accommodation wardens look after students' halls of residence, hostels and leisure accommodation. Housing scheme managers have responsibilities closer to social work – in sheltered accommodation for older people, or in hostels for homeless people, care-leavers or those with learning disabilities. Some jobs involve 'living in'.
Accountancy Today's accountants offer much more than just bookkeeping and auditing; they are financial specialists, at the heart of all areas of business. To start training with an employer as an accountant, you normally need A level or equivalent qualifications; in practice, the majority of entrants are graduates.
Accounting technician Accounting technicians may be employed in a wide range of financial roles – and by many different types of organisations. Qualification is through one of two professional accounting bodies and, while being confident at working with numbers is important, there are no minimum entry requirements to begin training.
Actuary Actuaries are financial specialists who apply mathematical and statistical knowledge to real-life problems, mainly in the areas of pensions, insurance and investments. Most people enter training with a good honours degree, usually in a numerate subject.
Administrative and clerical work Administrative and clerical staff keep offices running smoothly. Jobs are found in all areas of work including the Civil Service, local government, commercial companies, manufacturing firms, shops, hospitals, schools and colleges. For entry to certain jobs you will need at least some GCSEs at good grades.
Advertising Advertising involves promoting products or services. Although it is often considered a glamorous industry, in reality it is a tough and highly competitive business. Most of the top jobs go to graduates, but there may be opportunities for people with lower-level qualifications. Commitment, good communication skills and creativity are all-important.
Advisory work If you'd like a career that involves giving advice to others, this leaflet will give you some ideas to get you started. You can then find out more about particular jobs that interest you from the related leaflets section. For some careers, specialist vocational qualifications are required.
Aerospace engineering Aircraft are complex machines that take many years to design and develop. Engineers generally have relevant degrees, but there are also opportunities at craft and technician level for those with lower-level qualifications.
Agricultural services and contracting Farmers employ agricultural contractors and qualified professionals for expert advice, practical help or to make use of their specialist skills. Jobs are available for those with practical farming skills and experience, as well as for professionally qualified people, such as solicitors or surveyors who have specialised in agricultural work.
Agriculture The UK's agricultural industry may have changed in recent years, but it's still of vital importance. Today's workers must be skilled, qualified and adaptable. You can start training with a few GCSEs, or equivalent, but the more qualifications you have, the better your prospects.
Air cabin crew Air cabin crew are responsible for attending to the safety, needs and comfort of passengers. Although some people think that the job is glamorous, it is responsible and demanding work. Some good GCSEs may be expected by certain airlines, but the right personality and physical fitness are at least as important.
Air traffic controllers Air traffic controllers (ATCOs) are responsible for organising the safe movement of flights through UK airspace. To train as an ATCO with NATS (the major employer in the UK) you need at least five good grade GCSEs including English and maths (or equivalent). There are also opportunities for assistants, engineers and other staff.
Ambulance service The ambulance service is a vital part of the NHS, essential to those who are sick or injured and to others that need transport to hospital clinics etc. There are opportunities at all levels, from ambulance care assistants doing non-emergency work through to highly qualified paramedics.
Amenity horticulture Amenity horticulture is about working in public parks and gardens, for landscaping contractors or for owners of private gardens and estates. Some horticulturists work in specialist botanical or historic gardens. Ground staff and greenkeepers care for sports fields and golf courses. Entry requirements vary from none at all to a relevant degree.
Animal technology Animals used in medical and veterinary research are reared and cared for by animal technicians who may also assist with experimental procedures. Many animal species are used but most are rats and mice. Trainees usually have at least some GCSEs at grades A*-C, or equivalent.
Animal welfare This leaflet is about working with the major societies and charities that treat and care for animals outside private veterinary practice. Societies include the RSPCA, PDSA and the Blue Cross. Staff employed include veterinary surgeons, who are graduates, as well as people who have lower-level qualifications, but are experienced at caring for animals.
Animation Animators can work in various branches of the media, from feature films to websites or computer games. While a very talented few become animators by building on an amateur interest, most entrants take an appropriate higher education course.
Applying for higher education courses Higher education (HE) includes courses leading to degrees, HNDs, foundation degrees and other qualifications at level 4 and above. The majority of HE applications are made through UCAS (the Universities and Colleges Admissions Service).
Apprenticeships and work-based learning This leaflet describes the various structured learning programmes available for young people who want to train mainly 'on the job', whilst gaining nationally recognised qualifications at the same time. There are opportunities for those of all ability levels.
Archaeology Archaeologists explore and study remains from the past - from buried towns to minute grains of pollen. They examine artefacts, building materials, mineralised food and waste, and human and animal remains. Much archaeological work is undertaken in a commercial environment, as part of the planning and development process. There is generally a mix of academic work and field research. Most archaeologists are graduates.
Architecture Besides the design of new buildings and extensions, architecture also involves the restoration and conversion of existing ones. To become an architect or chartered architectural technologist, you train over a period of years to degree level and beyond. Qualified architectural technicians support architects and chartered architectural technologists in their work.
Archivist Archivists take care of all kinds of records, written or otherwise, and provide access to them. Many archivists are employed by national or local authorities; the remainder work with organisations that hold collections of records, or look after the records of a single organisation. Archivists have postgraduate qualifications.
Art and design - an introduction Training in art and design can lead to a career working as a fine artist, designer, craftworker or art teacher - as well as all sorts of other jobs. Most people working in art and design have at least A levels or equivalent qualifications; many have degrees in an art and design specialism.
Art and design after year 9 Art and design may well be a subject you enjoy at school. It can be relaxing and satisfying. Using your imagination or observation, you can create images and designs with colour, line, shape and texture. Studying art and design is a way of developing your creative abilities.
Arts administration Arts administrators (also known as arts managers) support creative and cultural organisations and activities in the performing, visual and literary arts. They are practical, responsible people who are excellent organisers and communicators. Most jobs require at least A levels or equivalent qualifications – many arts administrators are graduates.
Assistants in the health service Support staff assist nurses, therapists, healthcare scientists and other professionals. They play a vital part in the smooth running of health services and patient care. You don't always need formal qualifications but, for most jobs, it's important to have a responsible and caring personality. Training is usually on the job, often leading to work-based qualifications.
Astronomy and space science Astronomers and space scientists study the planets, stars, galaxies and nebulae, using mathematical, physical and chemical theories to explain their observations. Most of the work is at graduate and postgraduate level.
Automotive engineering and design Automotive engineers work on the design, development and production of the millions of cars, lorries, vans, buses and other vehicles on our roads. Engineers have degrees, but there are opportunities at technician level for those with GCSEs at grades A*-C, or equivalent.
Baking and confectionery The craft of baking provides us with one of our basic foodstuffs, bread, as well as all sorts of delicious extras like pastries and cakes. The basic skills of the trade are taught in colleges, or by bakers who have gained their expertise through years of work.
Banks and building societies Retail banks and building societies provide financial services - such as current and savings accounts, mortgages and loans - to individuals and businesses. There are jobs for entrants with a few GCSEs at grades A*-C (or equivalent qualifications), through to graduates.
Barristers Barristers provide advocacy services including presenting cases in court and giving expert, specialist legal opinion to solicitors and their clients. To train as a barrister you need a law degree, or a degree in another subject followed by a conversion course. After this, you do vocational training and at least a year's pupillage.
Barristers' clerk A barristers' clerk is responsible for the organisation and administration of a set of chambers (offices) in which a group of barristers work. Senior clerks are highly skilled managers. The recommended minimum entry requirement is four GCSEs at grades A*-C, or equivalent; some entrants hold higher-level qualifications.
Beauty consultant Beauty consultants sell cosmetics, perfumes and other beauty preparations to women and men. They advise customers on the most suitable products. They must know something about what the products contain, how they work and how they are tested. Academic qualifications may not be as important as personality and appearance.
Beauty therapy and related careers People who specialise in beauty may work in salons, department stores, spas, leisure clubs, hotels, in clients' homes and even on cruise ships. While formal qualifications are not essential to train for beauty work, college courses may require GCSEs at particular grades for entry.
Benefits for young people - an introduction In certain circumstances, if you are aged 16-19, you may be entitled to state benefits. The rules can be complicated, but don't let this put you off – make sure that you claim any money that you are entitled to! This leaflet provides a brief overview of the kind of financial support that may be available to young people and gives sources of further information.
Bereavement Even though we all know that death must come to each one of us, when someone close to us dies the effect can be overwhelming and it can be difficult for us to come to terms with our loss. This leaflet explains a little about the grieving process and provides links to organisations that can offer information, advice and support.
Biomedical/life sciences Staff working in the life sciences, including biomedical science, are involved in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, and in research and development. Scientists are graduates, but there are also openings for support staff with lower-level qualifications.
Biotechnology Biotechnology is the science that applies the knowledge of biological processes at molecular level to areas such as healthcare, the environment, agriculture and the food industry. Graduates are needed to work in research and development, but there are also opportunities at technician level.
Brewing Beer is enjoyed by millions of adults in the UK; in fact, out of every ten drinks sold in British pubs, seven are beers! To maintain beer quality on such a large scale, the brewing process is highly technical. There are opportunities in the industry for production operatives with few qualifications, and for scientists and engineers with degrees or the equivalent.
Bricklaying Bricklayers do one of the best-known jobs in the construction industry. Bricks are still the main materials used in many buildings, so there is always a need for good bricklayers. You can start learning the skills with few qualifications, but it can take several years' training and experience to become fully skilled.
Building services engineering Building services engineers are concerned with the operational systems within buildings. They work with lighting, heating, water, air conditioning, ventilation, refrigeration, fire protection, security, and waste disposal systems etc. There are jobs for craftworkers, technicians and professional engineers. Entry is possible at all qualification levels.
Business and related subjects after year 9 Studying business will help you understand how commerce and industry works, and economics will help you appreciate how economic choices and issues impact on our lives. Both subjects give you an introduction to the world of work and can open up a wide choice of careers.
Cabinetmaking, furniture making and design Most modern furniture is made in factories. Some jobs involve simple routine tasks, while others include operating complex machinery. Designers and managers may have qualifications up to degree level. There are also opportunities in small firms for skilled craftspeople using traditional tools and methods.
Care assistant with older people Some care assistants specialise in helping and caring for older people in residential homes, nursing homes and day care centres. There are also care assistants who visit older people in their own homes, to help them live independently. You do not need any particular qualifications for entry to care assistant work.
Career guidance work Career guidance specialists help people to make decisions about their education, training and future career. They work in career guidance services, schools, colleges, universities, private career advice and counselling services and in industry. Many are graduates with a recognised postgraduate qualification, although it is possible for non-graduates to qualify through work-based training.  
Careers for musicians A career in music may involve performing - ranging from pop to opera, and working in a variety of areas, including live performance, composing/songwriting, teaching and recording. This leaflet describes the different types of work you can follow if you go to music college, or perhaps take a music degree, although not all performers have such qualifications.
Careers in antiques People often choose to work with antiques because they have an interest in old, and often beautiful, things. In reality, the antiques trade is a very competitive business. Experience, interest, enthusiasm and commercial understanding are more important than academic qualifications.
Careers in dental health Providing dental care doesn't just involve dentists! Dental nurses, dental hygienists and therapists, and dental technicians all play a vital role in the promotion of dental health. To start training as a dentist, you take a degree. Training for other jobs requires qualifications ranging from a few GCSEs or equivalent.
Careers in film and TV - an introduction This leaflet provides an overview of the range of jobs within the film and TV industries, most of which require technical knowledge and expertise, as well as enthusiasm and dedication. Opportunities generally occur more often within TV companies than with film companies.
Careers in finance The UK financial services industry is huge, and vital to our economy. This leaflet gives you some idea about the scope of careers within the sector. There are job opportunities for those with qualifications ranging from a few GCSEs at grades A*-C, to graduates.
Careers in glass, clay and ceramics Glass and ceramics are quite different materials, but in fact they are made from common, natural substances, such as sand, clay and limestone. These materials are processed and made into products with a wide range of properties and uses. There are career opportunities in these sectors for those with qualifications ranging from a few GCSEs to degrees.
Careers in law There are many career opportunities in the legal profession, some needing few qualifications, others requiring a degree followed by further study and training. This leaflet briefly outlines the main careers related to law. It also provides information on taking a degree in law.
Careers in mental health Career opportunities in the field of mental health are many and varied - from psychiatry to social care - and there are lots of different entry levels. This leaflet gives a brief overview of the range of jobs; there are other leaflets in this series, listed under related leaflets, where you can find more detailed information on some of the careers.
Careers in museums and art galleries Museums and art galleries aim to inspire people with their collections of objects, paintings and artefacts; people working in museums and art galleries are involved in classifying, conserving, interpreting and making these items accessible. There are around 2,500 museums and galleries in the UK, owned publicly, privately or by charities. Jobs range from those requiring GCSEs to degree-level jobs and beyond.
Careers in outdoor pursuits 'Outdoor pursuits' include activities such as hiking, climbing, cycling, caving, diving, orienteering, riding, sailing, windsurfing, canoeing, kayaking, snowboarding, skiing and paragliding! To work as an instructor, you need recognised qualifications in your chosen activity, which are often more important than academic qualifications.
Careers in pensions Working in pensions means helping to look after the money that most people, during their working lives, pay towards their retirement. A range of job opportunities exists, from clerical to managerial. Relevant professional qualifications are available.
Careers in pharmaceuticals The pharmaceutical industry researches, develops, makes and supplies the medicines that treat diseases and ease symptoms of ill health in humans and animals. There are opportunities in scientific and technical work for people with qualifications ranging from good GCSEs to postgraduate level.
Careers in radio Many of us enjoy listening to the radio and regularly tune in to our favourite programmes. Putting together a radio show usually involves a small team of people with creative and technical skills. Many people working in radio are graduates, but there are other entry routes.
Careers in theatre There are many jobs 'behind the scenes' in theatres. These include costume, make-up, set design, lighting and music as well as stage management and production work. Some jobs require experience, besides academic and/or professional qualifications.
Careers related to sport Many different jobs relate to sport. You don't always need to be a potential Jessica Ennis-Hill or Tom Daley! There are jobs directly involved in sports activity, such as teaching or coaching, and jobs away from the action, e.g. in sport and exercise science, and management. Entry requirements range from a few GCSEs to degree-level qualifications.
Careers using biological sciences Biologists are scientists who study living organisms. With degree-level or equivalent qualifications, biologists can work in many areas including various industries, government departments, research councils, education, environmental consultancies, and in biomedical science. There are also openings for laboratory assistants and technicians.
Careers using geography Geography is about people, places and the environment throughout the world. It investigates natural and human environments – what they are like, how they are changing and how they are related. Studying geography is useful for a wide range of careers; this leaflet provides an overview of the opportunities.
Careers using history There are few paid jobs for historians, but a training in investigating and understanding past events can be useful in other areas of work, such as law or certain parts of the Civil Service. To enter some careers using history you need a degree; other jobs accept people with lower-level qualifications.
Careers with biochemistry Biochemistry is the study of how living things work at the most basic level. Biochemical findings are vital to healthcare and to many other industries. High-level biochemical posts go to people with relevant science degrees and experience. There are also opportunities for technicians and laboratory assistants.
Careers with chemistry Chemistry is about what substances are made of, how they interact and how they affect our lives. Chemists can work in many areas including in industry, for the community/environment, in medicine or in education. Most opportunities are for graduates or postgraduates, but it is possible to enter some career areas with lower-level qualifications.
Careers with design and technology Design and technology, and related subjects, are an important part of the school curriculum. You learn how to design and make things - ranging from electronics to textiles. If you particularly enjoy design and technology, this leaflet will give you some ideas about how you might use your skills and interests in a related career.
Careers with mathematics This leaflet provides an overview of careers where you either need an advanced knowledge of maths - such as research, statistics, economics, operational research and teaching maths - or a particular ability with figures. Entry requirements for jobs vary, from those that need a good grade for GCSE maths through to those requiring a postgraduate qualification.
Careers with physics Physics helps us to work out how and why things behave as they do, and is vital to developments in the modern world. The majority of opportunities require study to degree level, or beyond, but there are some technician-level jobs for those with qualifications at a lower level.
Caretakers, attendants and porters Lots of people have jobs that involve keeping an eye on something – making sure that everything is as it should be. They may look after a building, factory site, car park, an office block or even exhibits in a museum. Formal qualifications are not usually required for entry to these types of jobs.
Caring work - an introduction This leaflet introduces a range of jobs that involve caring for people in a practical way. This could be caring for children, teenagers or older people, or undertaking work involving social care or healthcare. Generally, you don't need many qualifications to get started but, for some of the jobs described, you may need to be aged at least 18.
Carpentry and joinery Carpenters and joiners work with wood. Joiners prepare and assemble items such as staircases and doors for use on a building site; they often use machines during this process. Site carpenters fit them into the buildings and do other timber work on site. No particular qualifications are needed to start training.
Carpet fitting and floorlaying Carpet fitters, or floorlayers, may be employed by carpet retailers, contractors, interior decoration firms, or they may work for themselves. You can enter carpet fitting and floorlaying with few qualifications and learn as you work.
Cartography Cartography is about making, studying and revising maps, plans, charts, 3D models and globes. Map compilers use information from a range of sources. Professional cartographers are usually graduates, while mapping technicians, who help produce finished maps, may be able to start with lower-level qualifications.
Cartoonist Cartoons are found in newspapers, magazines, comics and books; increasingly, they are used to brighten up websites and apps. They may be political, aimed at an informed adult audience, or something to entertain young children. Cartoonists don't need formal qualifications, although art training may help.
Catering and hospitality management Providing food and accommodation for people is a huge business. Managers in the catering and hospitality industry may start with higher education qualifications, or work their way up, gaining qualifications while in relevant employment.
Chemical engineering Chemical engineers take raw materials and transform them into products such as fuel, pharmaceuticals, food, plastics, synthetic fibres and cosmetics – in a safe and cost-effective way. Chemical engineers generally have degree-level qualifications.
Childminding and fostering Childminding and fostering involve looking after children in your own home. Although very different, they are both responsible, demanding jobs. Childminders must be registered. Foster carers offer a home to children/young people on a short- or longer-term basis when their natural parents are unable to do so. For these types of jobs, the right personal aptitude and skills are essential.
Choices at eighteen After taking a level 3 course, leading to qualifications such as A levels, you could consider higher education, further education or work-related training, getting a job, taking a year out or self-employment. This leaflet helps you consider these alternatives. There are other leaflets in this system that give more information about the different options.
Choices at sixteen Don't worry if you don't know what you want to do in the future – you are not alone! However, you will soon need to decide on your next step after year 11. There are a lot of options available, so you will have to think carefully before making your choice. This leaflet gives an overview of the different options available to you.
Choosing a field of nursing Registered nurses are highly responsible members of the healthcare team. They work closely with doctors, therapists and other healthcare professionals to give skilled care to patients, in hospitals or in the community. Nurses usually choose to train in one of the four main fields – adult, children's, learning disabilities or mental health nursing.
Choosing level 3 courses after year 11 The post-16 curriculum offers a broad and flexible programme of study in schools, sixth form colleges, further education colleges etc. This leaflet outlines the various level 3 (advanced level) courses available; this is the standard of qualification you will need to achieve if you wish to go on to higher education (HE) at a later stage.
Choosing your higher education The range of higher education (HE) institutions, courses and qualifications is so diverse, you are bound to find something, whatever your requirements! This leaflet aims to outline what is on offer, and help you to choose the right institution and course for you.
Civil engineering People working in civil engineering are involved with the planning, design and construction of projects ranging from tunnels to skyscrapers. Engineers have degrees or equivalent qualifications. There are also opportunities to work as an operative or train as a craftworker or technician.
Civilian jobs with the police In police stations and headquarters, civilian police staff support the work of the police. There are opportunities in administrative, technical and other support services. Many jobs are available in all forces, but some only exist in large ones. The work areas described require a range of entry qualifications.
Cleaners Cleaners make sure that buildings are clean, tidy and hygienic. Depending on where they work, cleaners may be known as cleaning operatives, domestic assistants or room attendants. You don't need formal qualifications to be a cleaner, but it's important to have the right personal qualities.
Coastguard and coastal services HM Coastguard is responsible for coordinating civil search and rescue operations around the UK coastline and surrounding waters. There are opportunities for maritime operations officers and other paid staff, and for volunteer coastguard rescue officers. These roles are highly responsible so candidates need the right skills and aptitude.
Commercial horticulture Commercial horticulture – also known as production horticulture – involves growing fruit, vegetables or flowers as a profit-making business. It also covers raising plants, shrubs and trees to sell at nurseries and garden centres. Entry requirements vary from none (or few) to start a job with training, to a degree for research and management posts.
Commodity broking Commodity brokers buy and sell raw materials – food, energy and metals – on behalf of producers and customers. New entrants are usually graduates, however it may be possible to enter clerical and administrative roles with lower-level qualifications, such as A levels, or equivalent.
Communications engineering Communications engineering is about sending and receiving information by electronic means. Recent years have seen huge developments in the industry, with ever closer links between different forms of communication. There are opportunities for those with qualifications ranging from GCSE to degree level.
Community development work Community workers help people to improve life in their own community. Employers include local authorities and voluntary sector organisations. There are no set entry requirements; people enter from all backgrounds – from those with few formal qualifications to graduates. Experience and relevant skills are important for this kind of work.
Company secretary Company secretaries are highly qualified professional administrators and managers with a number of responsibilities, including making sure their organisation complies with all legal requirements. There are professional qualifications for company secretaries, and many have degrees.
Complementary medicine Complementary medicine covers a wide range of treatments. Some are based on principles thousands of years old, often emphasising the patient's spiritual health or vitality; others have been developed more recently. How much these different treatments are recognised by the medical establishment varies. Training requirements also vary from one field to another.
Computer engineering Computer engineering is a broad term for those working on the research, design and development, production, installation and maintenance of computers. Computer engineers need degree-level qualifications; technical support jobs normally require at least some GCSEs at grades A*-C or 9-5/4.
Computer science and ICT after year 9 As you have probably grown up with computers at home, and use them regularly at school, you will have developed basic computing and ICT skills from an early age. Through years 10 and 11, you will continue to use computers to develop your skills, and you could consider taking a qualification in computer science or ICT.
Conference and exhibition organising Organisers are responsible for a conference or exhibition, from the original idea to completion. There are no specific entry qualifications, but for positions with responsibility graduates may be sought. It's possible for those with lower-level qualifications to work their way up.
Conservation of works of art The conservation and restoration of works of art and other historical objects is a very complex and painstaking business. However, the work can be interesting, varied and give personal satisfaction. Conservator-restorers need an understanding of science and history, as well as practical skills. Entry usually requires postgraduate qualifications; technician-level roles are also available.
Construction: technical work and management There are many jobs in the construction industry that involve the management of people, resources and projects. There are opportunities for those with GCSEs at grades A*-C (or equivalent), up to degree level and beyond.
Contact/call centre work Most of us, at some time, have been in touch with someone at a contact centre - either on the phone or via an instant messaging service, for example. Contact centre staff provide an organisation's customer services. A good general education is needed for entry.
Cooking and food preparation Cooking and food preparation is vital to one of the largest industries in Britain - hospitality and catering. Although you can learn to cook on the job, it takes time, commitment and specialist training to learn the more professional skills.
Coping with interviews You may have been offered an interview for a place on a course, for an Apprenticeship programme or with an employer for a job. Whatever the situation, this leaflet gives you some basic advice, to make sure that you make the most of yourself during your interview.
Coroners and coroners' officers Coroners are judicial officers. Their role has existed, in some form, for over 800 years. They are experienced lawyers who investigate any sudden or unexplained death. They are independent of local and national government, and act within certain laws and rules of procedure. Coroners' officers assist coroners with their legal duties.
Costumes, sets and props work Every film, theatre and TV production needs people to design and create the costumes, sets and props. Many jobs require specific skills that can be gained through specialist courses and experience. There are opportunities at all levels.
Counselling careers People who have a problem or are unhappy with some aspect of their lives may seek the help of a counsellor. Counsellors help people to understand their problems more clearly, in order to find ways of coping. Counselling is often a second career for people from an educational or caring profession.
Craft bookbinding and conservation As most books are now bound by machine, many people think that craft bookbinding is a job that has almost disappeared. This is far from the truth; many small firms and individuals still practise the skills of craft bookbinding. Courses are offered in this area of work, from introductory to postgraduate level.
Creative therapies Art, drama, music, dance, play and horticulture can all be used as forms of therapy. Qualified therapists help people express themselves and communicate with others, working with clients in hospitals, clinics, special schools and prisons etc. In most areas of therapy described in this leaflet, a postgraduate qualification and specialist skills in the particular creative activity are required.
Credit control and management Credit control and management is concerned with making sure that people (and organisations) who borrow money or who buy goods on credit can afford to do so, and that they pay their debts on time. There are jobs for people with every level of qualification.
Customer service work Customer service is the main line of communication between an organisation and its clients or customers. Get it right and customers will keep coming back; get it wrong and the organisation won't be in business for long! You can enter this work with GCSEs, or equivalent qualifications. If you are aiming for management, higher qualifications may be needed.
CV writing for job changers If you're looking for a new job, adverts may ask you to forward a CV (curriculum vitae), or you may want to send one to an agency or 'on spec' to possible employers. CVs are a useful way to present your skills and experience, but there's no one correct format. This leaflet gives examples and advice to help you produce your first CV, or to update your old one.
CV writing for young people When you apply for a job or training programme, you may need to send a CV (curriculum vitae). A CV is a way of presenting your qualifications, skills and experience in writing – concisely and clearly. There's no one correct way of writing a CV; this leaflet gives some general guidelines and brief examples.
Dance and dance teaching If you love dance, your possible career options include performing, teaching, choreography, or dance administration and management. To succeed as a performer, you need to be very talented and to train hard. Most professional training for performers is provided by independent dance schools and colleges.
Dealing with abuse Abuse – whatever form it takes – can create serious problems for the victim and has the potential to cause long-term psychological damage. That's not to say it's impossible to recover and lead a normal life. This leaflet briefly explores abuse in its various forms and lists organisations that can help.
Dealing with stress Sometimes things can get too much for us. That's when we might feel stressed. Stress can have an impact on all aspects of our lives including our work, studies, relationships and social life. This leaflet looks at the main causes of stress, offers some advice on coping with it, and tells you where you can find out more and get support.
Delivery and courier work The number of delivery and courier services has increased in recent years. Businesses want a delivery service that is fast and reliable; for example, money can be saved if a vital spare part, needed for an essential piece of equipment, arrives within hours. Delivery staff and couriers need to have good road sense!
Demolition Demolition workers knock down buildings and clear sites ready for construction work or landscaping. Workers learn how to use special demolition equipment safely. You do not normally need formal qualifications to get started in this type of work.
Dental hygiene and dental therapy Dental hygienists and therapists carry out routine dental care and treatment. They work in a range of settings; in the NHS they are sometimes known as oral health practitioners. You can train with A levels or equivalent qualifications; entry to training is also possible for qualified dental nurses.
Dental nurse A dental nurse helps both the dentist and the patient before, during and after treatment. Entry requirements vary depending on your training route; those who train in the workplace need a good general education; particular GCSE subjects or grades may be requested by employers. To train through a higher education course, you usually need A level or equivalent qualifications. 
Dental technology Dental technicians (or technologists as they are often known) work to dentists' prescriptions to produce appliances (e.g. braces, crowns and dentures) for individual patient's mouths. To start a relevant college course you may need five GCSEs at grades A*-C, or the equivalent. Higher education courses are also available for which you need A level or equivalent qualifications.
Dentist Dentists work in a variety of settings – in general practice, hospitals and community dental services; some dentists work in research, teaching and the Armed Forces. You can only become a dentist after gaining a degree in dentistry, which usually takes five years. This is followed by further training in the workplace.
Design engineering Design engineers design new products and systems, or improve existing ones. They work in teams that aim to incorporate safety, economy and efficiency into products and systems, and ensure that the design does the job it is meant to do. Design engineers have degree-level qualifications. Technicians may enter training with good GCSEs, or equivalent.
Designer craftspeople While some designers work for industry, designing objects for mass production, a small number work instead as designer craftspeople - designing and making pieces themselves. A variety of specialised craft courses is available, from introductory up to postgraduate level.
Diagnostic and therapeutic radiography There are two distinct categories of radiographer: diagnostic radiographers work with patients undergoing clinical imaging examinations, while therapeutic radiographers work with patients undergoing radiotherapy. To work as a radiographer, you need an approved degree or postgraduate qualification. Assistant-level jobs, which require lower-level qualifications, are also available.
Dietetics Dietetics applies the science of nutrition to the diets of different people – whether they are healthy or unwell. Dietitians need an approved degree or postgraduate qualification in dietetics. There are opportunities to work in support roles that require lower level qualifications. A related job is that of nutritionist, which has a different training route.
Digital design This leaflet focuses on careers designing websites and apps. The work calls for a mixture of creative and technical skills. Web/app development, management and maintenance are related areas of work. Although it's possible to start a career in digital design without any particular qualifications, many of those working in this area have studied at higher education level.
Direct selling Many firms use the telephone to sell their products or services. Double glazing, security systems and advertising space in papers and magazines, for example, may be sold in this way. Door-to-door calling is another form of direct sales. For this type of work, the right personality is more important than academic qualifications.
Disaster management and relief This leaflet describes some of the jobs that are concerned with emergencies and natural disasters. There are opportunities for people to work on the planning side through to those who provide disaster relief and development, often abroad. Some jobs are for those who already have relevant training; for others, there are no set entry qualifications.
Display and exhibition design Display and exhibition designers create three-dimensional (3D) designs, using colour, shape and form. They may work in the retail industry - where they are often known as visual merchandisers - or design exhibitions to inform and educate, or for commercial purposes. There are no set entry requirements.
Distance and open learning Distance learning, home study, e-learning and open learning are flexible ways of learning that often appeal to people who cannot or do not want to attend college or university at set times. You study by yourself, but support is usually available. The courses offered range from general education and leisure to those leading to professional qualifications.
Diving Commercial divers work underwater, doing construction, inspection, testing and repair work in rivers, canals, lakes and the open sea. They also conduct underwater searches. Besides diving qualifications and the necessary safety certificates, you may need to be skilled in a trade or profession. There are also opportunities to teach recreational diving, or to guide dives.
Domestic appliance and office equipment servicing and repair When a domestic appliance or some office equipment goes wrong, the skills of a service technician or engineer are needed! Regular servicing also helps to keep machinery operating smoothly. Entry requirements vary depending on the job role, but GCSEs, or equivalent qualifications, are often needed.
Drama and acting Working as an actor is competitive, demanding and often insecure, but for many people acting is a challenging and rewarding career. Very few people become famous – but stardom is not everyone's goal. Entry requirements for drama school courses vary, but A levels, or their equivalent, may be needed.
Driving instruction and examining Driving instructors approved by the Driver and Vehicle Standards Agency (DVSA) teach learners, and other drivers, to handle motor vehicles competently and safely. Examiners assess the driving skills of those taking their driving test. Both instructors and examiners have to train and pass strict tests to prove their competency.
Driving jobs This leaflet describes jobs driving lorries, buses, coaches, taxis, private hire vehicles and trams. It also looks at driving for roadside assistance and recovery organisations, and for Highways England/the Welsh Government Traffic Officer Service. You need to hold the necessary licence for the type of driving you want to do.
Economist Economists research, analyse and interpret information about economic performance, in order to advise business and the Government. Economists have degrees and, increasingly, postgraduate qualifications.
Education welfare officer The main role of education welfare officers (EWOs) is to make sure that all children benefit fully from education. They are really doing social work in an educational setting. EWOs are sometimes known by other titles, such as education social workers. Entrants are often qualified social workers.
Electrical engineering It would be hard to imagine our daily lives without electricity; it's also vital to almost all industries. Electricity is used for lighting, communication, entertainment, transport, healthcare ... the list goes on! Job opportunities range from those requiring a few GCSEs, to degree level and beyond.
Electrical installation and maintenance Electricity is vital for lighting, heating, communication and for running all sorts of machinery. Wherever electricity is used, there is work for installation and maintenance electricians. An Advanced Apprenticeship is the main training route and usually requires certain GCSEs at good grades (or equivalent qualifications), for entry.
Electronics assembly Electronics assemblers put together pieces of electronic equipment. The job may involve just adding one or two parts in the process of making an item and then passing it down an assembly line. Qualifications are not normally needed for entry.
Electronics engineering Electronics engineers are responsible for much of the technology we use in our everyday lives and also for some very specialised applications. There are opportunities at all levels in the electronics and related industries, for people with qualifications ranging from a few GCSEs to degree level and above.
Employment agency work Employment agencies act as a link between employers and jobseekers. They earn fees from employers by finding suitable candidates for vacancies. There are thousands of agencies in the UK, ranging from national chains to small, independent agencies. There are no set entry requirements to work as a recruitment consultant.
Employment at 18+ with level 3 qualifications Not everyone leaving school or college with level 3 qualifications wants to go on to full-time higher education; some opt to find a job instead. This leaflet outlines employment opportunities that offer structured training leading to useful qualifications that will allow you to progress.
Engineering - areas of work If you enjoy maths and science and are thinking about a career in engineering, this leaflet introduces you to the main areas you could consider. You may find that engineering covers a wider range than you thought!
Engineering - qualifications and training It's possible to enter engineering at a range of levels - from those who start as an operator to those who have Chartered Engineer status. This means that there are opportunities for people who have a few GCSEs right up to postgraduate-level qualifications.
Engineering construction People working in the engineering construction industry design, build and maintain industrial processing, energy production and water treatment facilities. Entry requirements vary depending on the level of entry; there are jobs for craftworkers, technicians and graduate engineers.
Engineering maintenance Those working in machinery servicing or engineering maintenance play a vital role because many manufacturers and other organisations depend on their machinery running smoothly. To start training at technician level, you may need five GCSEs at grades A*-C, or equivalent.
English after year 9 English is probably the school subject you use the most. Can you imagine writing a history or geography essay, or describing a scientific experiment, without having a good grasp of English? As having good English skills is so important, you must continue to study the subject in years 10 and 11.
Entertaining and show business The word 'entertainer' relates to a wide range of performers. This leaflet describes some of the opportunities and ways to get started in this competitive area of work. If you are to stand a chance of being successful, the most important requirements are talent and perseverance.
Environmental health practitioner Environmental health practitioners (EHPs) and support staff are employed by both public and private organisations. Their task is to protect the public by ensuring a healthy environment for the community in their area. To train to be an EHP, you need to have an accredited degree or postgraduate qualification.
Equal opportunities: your rights It's unlawful to discriminate against someone on a number of different grounds including their sex, race, age or disability. The law applies to many areas of life, but this leaflet focuses on your rights in employment, training and education. The law is complex – if you encounter discrimination, seek advice from the organisations listed.
Ergonomics Ergonomics is about making sure that the design of objects, equipment, environments or systems takes into account the needs of people, so that they work efficiently, safely and are unlikely to make mistakes. Entry is possible for those with higher education qualifications in ergonomics/human factors or those who have experience in related fields.
Estate agency work Buying a property is the most costly and complicated purchase that many people ever make, and estate agents are able to help people through that process. You can become an estate agent without specific qualifications and train while in the job. Senior staff and managers often have degrees or professional qualifications.
Ethical careers Do you care deeply about social issues, the environment, human rights, the arms trade or the developing world? If so, these views may influence your choice of career or employer. Whether you have a few GCSEs or a degree, there will be career opportunities to suit you.
Events management Behind every 'event' - whether a rock concert or literature festival - there are people who are responsible for putting it all together. They have to organise everything from dealing with publicity to making sure there are enough toilets! No specific qualifications are needed to get started, but having the right qualities and skills is very important.
Exporting and importing The UK exports and imports billions of pounds' worth of goods every year. Within Europe, trade has grown in recent years, although much of our trade is still carried on beyond Europe. Jobs in the import and export trade range from those requiring few qualifications up to degree-level work.
Farm management Farm management may appeal to you if you want to run a farm but don't have the money to buy land and other resources yourself. Even tenant farmers need capital to start with, and tenancies are scarce; so, managing someone else's farm may be the answer. You need relevant experience and agricultural qualifications, often at higher education level.
Farm secretary/administrator Many farmers rely on a farm secretary or administrator for the smooth running of the business side of their operations. The secretary or administrator may work solely for one business, or make regular visits to several farms. A good standard of education and relevant skills are generally required for entry.
Fashion design Fashion design is a fast-moving and competitive business. It includes the design of footwear and accessories as well as clothing. Courses relating to the fashion industry range from those requiring a few GCSEs or equivalent qualifications for entry, up to degree level and beyond.
Fast-fit services There are many vehicle workshops that specialise in fast-fit services such as tyre, exhaust and battery fitting. The work is usually done while the customer waits. You need to be practical and to like dealing with the public. You do not usually need any particular qualifications for entry.
Financial adviser Financial advisers, also called financial planners or wealth managers, help people choose the right products such as mortgages, life insurance policies and pension plans; they also advise on investments. They need to know a lot about the different products on offer. Entry requirements vary, but advisers must hold an approved qualification before they can provide financial advice without supervision.
Finding yourself homeless...and finding your feet Finding yourself homeless can be very upsetting. You don't have to be sleeping rough to be classified as homeless; you can be sleeping on the floor of a friend's home or staying in temporary accommodation. There are organisations that can help you find a proper home and get back on your feet.
Fine art Fine art is the term used to cover those works of art - paintings, sculptures, installations etc - that are produced purely for artistic purposes, rather than designs that are drawn up for practical and commercial reasons. Fine art can be studied to degree level and beyond.
Fisheries and related work Fish farmers breed and rear fish for food or for restocking lakes and rivers. There are also jobs breeding and selling ornamental fish and maintaining recreational fisheries for anglers. Managers and scientists usually have degree-level qualifications. There are also openings for those with few or no qualifications.
Fitness instructor As people are becoming more aware of the importance of keeping fit, there has been an increase in the number of gyms and fitness centres. As a result, employment opportunities have increased. You do not need any particular academic qualifications to enter this work, but you must be prepared to gain recognised fitness qualifications.
Fitting orthotic devices and artificial limbs Orthotists fit orthoses (splints, braces etc) to support and relieve pressure or discomfort in part of a patient's body, and prosthetists fit prostheses (artificial limbs). To train to become a prosthetist/orthotist requires a degree in prosthetics and orthotics. Maths and science-based A levels, or equivalent, are required for entry.
Floristry Florists sell flowers and plants, and make up bouquets, sprays and buttonholes for weddings and special occasions. They also make wreaths and floral tributes for funerals and flower arrangements for banquets etc. The work involves both creative flair and selling skills. No particular qualifications are required to begin training.
Food science and technology Food science and technology has a central role to play in the UK's massive food and drink industry. Food scientists and technologists are usually graduates, but there are also opportunities for technicians with lower-level qualifications.
Foreign travel Better transport networks and relatively cheap flights mean that there are more opportunities than ever before to explore the world. This leaflet sets out some of the ways you can get the most out of foreign travel. It covers a few of the basic rules and explains how to avoid some of the pitfalls when you're far from home.
Forensic science The staff of forensic science laboratories work closely with the police and others to provide impartial, scientific evidence for use in courts of law. They analyse material that might, for example, link the scene of a crime, a victim or a weapon to a suspect. Forensic scientists are graduates; there are also opportunities for support staff with lower-level qualifications.
Forestry, arboriculture and tree surgery Both forestry and arboriculture involve the cultivation and management of trees. Trees can be grown for timber or for their environmental and recreational benefits. The work ranges from planting, pruning and felling trees through to designing planting schemes, surveying trees and advising landowners. Jobs exist at all levels, from craftworkers to graduate positions.
Funding your further education - an overview This leaflet outlines the financial assistance that may be available if you want to go on to further education (FE), i.e. courses that lead to qualifications up to level 3, such as A levels and BTEC Level 3 Nationals. You might attend an FE college, sixth form or another training provider, full time or part time.
Funding your higher education - an overview This leaflet gives an overview of the financial assistance available to students entering higher education (HE) in 2017/18. It covers loans (for tuition fees and living costs), grants and bursaries. If the information will affect your parents, carer, spouse or partner, please share it with them.
Funeral directing, embalming and related work Funeral directing involves preparing a body for burial or cremation, ensuring that the legal requirements are satisfied, and making all the funeral arrangements. The right attitude and an ability to deal sympathetically with people are more important than academic qualifications.
Furniture removals When people or businesses decide to move, this means work for removal and storage firms. You don't need qualifications to start, but some good GCSEs (or equivalent) are useful.
Gamekeeping The gamekeeper's job is to look after the natural habitat of birds and animals that are shot as game. They may also help rear game birds, as well as protecting them in the wild. There are no set entry requirements, but some GCSEs at grades A*-C (or equivalent qualifications) may be needed to get onto certain college courses.
Games design This leaflet describes the jobs involved in designing and developing new computer games. Jobs are available in design, software development, art and animation, audio work, testing and production. Most new entrants have higher education qualifications.
Genetics Genetics is a specialised branch of biology concerned with inheritable factors carried within the cells of plants, micro-organisms and animals – factors that we call genes. Geneticists have degrees – and often postgraduate qualifications – but there are also opportunities for laboratory assistants and technicians.
Geoscience Geoscientists study the structure, evolution and composition of the Earth and its natural mineral and energy resources. Geoscientists generally have degrees and often postgraduate qualifications. There are opportunities to become a technician with lower-level qualifications.
Get streetwise and stay safe Like anyone else, young people can be victims of crime. Turn on the TV or open a newspaper and you'd think crime was everywhere. Although that's not quite the way it is, it's sensible to do all you can to protect yourself and your possessions. This leaflet looks at some of the ways you can keep crime out of your life.
Getting on with family and friends Relationships with our family and friends are important, but sometimes they might not be as good as they could be. If you're having problems in your relationships, talking about it to someone you trust may be the first step towards putting things right. There are organisations that offer advice and support during difficult times.
Getting your own car or motorbike Having our own car or motorcycle is a goal many of us aim for; it can give us the freedom to go where we want, when we want. However, having your own transport carries with it a lot of responsibilities – and not just towards others on the road. This leaflet outlines what is involved once you become a road user.
Good at English? Being good at English is important for anyone who gives or receives instructions, writes articles, letters, reports or books, uses the phone, gives lectures, argues cases and so on. GCSE at grade 9-4/5 or A*-C in English language/English, or equivalent, is therefore often demanded by employers and by further and higher education providers.
Graduate-level careers in agriculture Many people with degrees in agriculture work in research and development or in advisory and consultancy work. Others join the agricultural services industry, which produces seed, feedstuffs, agricultural equipment and agrochemicals. Some graduates prefer to stay in farming, and so go into farm management.
Graduate-level careers in horticulture Many people with degrees in horticulture, or closely related subjects, work in research and development or landscape and garden design. Some work for advisory services, or in those areas of the horticultural industry that produce seeds, chemicals, equipment and buildings. Others stay close to practical plant cultivation, working at management level.
Graphic design Graphic design is all about providing information in a visual way. This can be through drawings, typography, photographs, computer images or a mix of all four. Courses in graphic design are available up to degree and postgraduate level.
Hairdressing We are all familiar with the work of a hairdresser. You can start training as an apprentice, as an assistant in a salon, or at a college. Wigmaking is a related area of employment. There are no minimum entry requirements for hairdressing, but some employers and courses ask for GCSEs. A mix of manual, creative and social skills is useful.
Health and medical careers There are many different health-related careers. In fact, the National Health Service (NHS) is one of the biggest employers in the world! Some jobs involve close contact with patients; others are concerned with administration or providing essential support services. There are opportunities for people with all levels of qualification.
Health promotion specialist Health promotion specialists may work with individuals, in the wider community, or with government officials to try to influence policies that affect people's health. Most specialists have a relevant degree and/or professional qualification and, increasingly, a postgraduate qualification.
Health service management The NHS is one of the biggest employers in the world, has a multi-billion pound budget and is made up of hundreds of organisations. Managers make sure that resources are used effectively. Senior managers usually have degree-level qualifications, although it's possible to enter at an administrative level with GCSEs, or equivalent, and work your way up. There are also opportunities for managers with experience in other employment sectors to enter the NHS.
Healthcare assistant This leaflet focuses on healthcare assistants who work alongside nurses and midwives in all sorts of settings, providing general and personal care to patients, rather than medical treatment. No particular academic qualifications are required for entry, but a caring and responsible personality is essential.
Healthcare science: medical physics and clinical engineering Healthcare science staff working in medical physics and clinical engineering apply their knowledge of physical sciences to the diagnosis and treatment of disease. They work in research, development and quality control, and maintain and calibrate technical equipment. Training is through a relevant degree or postgraduate course. Support roles are available for those with lower-level qualifications.
Healthcare science: physiological sciences Healthcare science staff specialising in the physiological sciences work in the health sector, using equipment to measure and analyse how well various organs of patients' bodies or body systems are functioning. Training is through a relevant degree or postgraduate course. Support worker roles are available for those with lower-level qualifications.
Healthy eating We need food for energy and vitality! Our bodies function best when we eat a balanced diet, choose healthy options and limit the amount of sugar, fat and salt that we consume.
Heritage jobs Heritage work covers careers and jobs that are concerned with the historical buildings and sites found across the UK. It includes the management, maintenance and conservation of sites, often combined with encouraging tourism, so there are jobs for people with a wide range of qualifications.
Higher education and training in Europe Every year, thousands of students of all subjects spend part or all of their higher education (HE) course studying in Europe. There are also opportunities to undertake work-based training or to gain work experience in a different European Union (EU) country.
Higher education and training outside Europe Anyone contemplating working abroad in the future, or who simply wants to broaden their horizons, can consider higher education (HE) or training overseas. The information in this leaflet relates to study and training outside Europe, particularly in Commonwealth countries and the United States.
Hire services It sometimes makes better sense to hire an item that we only want to use once, rather than buy it. For example, we may hire a wallpaper steamer to do some DIY, or a morning suit to wear to a wedding. To start work in hire services, the right personal qualities are more important than academic qualifications.
Home economist/consumer scientist Home economists – or consumer scientists as they are known in some work settings – are professionals who advise on a range of different products and services, from food to domestic appliances. Home economists are likely to need specialist qualifications, perhaps up to degree level.
Horticulture If you're interested in plants, both commercial and amenity horticulture provide many varied careers – growing fruit, designing gardens, looking after sports pitches and working in botanical gardens, to name but a few. This leaflet gives an overview of the opportunities available. There are jobs for people with few or no qualifications, through to those for graduates. 
Hotels: reception and accommodation Lots of work goes on behind the scenes to make hotels pleasant places to stay. Front of house staff can create a good first impression by being efficient and helpful when dealing with guests. Housekeeping staff keep the rooms clean and comfortable. For entry to hotel work, people skills can be more valuable than qualifications.
Housing Benefit and how it works Housing Benefit (HB) is aimed at people on low incomes and, like many state benefits, there are certain steps you have to go through to get it. The process can be quite complicated, so if you get stuck you should ask for help – especially when it comes to form-filling. The information in this leaflet applies to England and Wales.
How parenthood can affect you It's not easy being a parent. It means that another person depends on you for all their needs. It is one of the most serious responsibilities and yet one of the most fulfilling; but if you're on your own, those responsibilities can be especially demanding. Although this leaflet is mainly aimed at young mums, a lot of the information also applies to single dads.
How to find a job This leaflet gives you ideas about where to search for job vacancies, as well as advice about contacting organisations 'on spec'. It also provides you with a planner to help you keep track of your job-hunting activities.
Human resources management Human resources management, or personnel management as it has traditionally been called, is about recruiting, training and managing an organisation's workforce. It's possible to start in a support role and work your way up by gaining experience and qualifications but, more commonly, human resources managers are graduates.
Humanities after year 9 Humanities subjects include history, geography, religious studies and sociology. The humanities involve studying human culture and the way people live (or lived), their interaction with each other and with their environment.
ICT - an introduction to the work and training Computers and ICT - information and communication technology - play a huge part in our daily lives. This leaflet gives an overview of the main specialist jobs in ICT. Many tech specialists hold qualifications equivalent to degree level, but it is possible to get started with lower-level qualifications.
ICT: managing the systems Organisations of all kinds make huge investments in information and communication technology (ICT). Management-level staff are needed to oversee the ICT systems, and to look after the information they hold. Managers in such positions are usually experienced computing staff.
ICT: sales and technical support Computer sales staff, maintenance technicians and helpdesk advisers make sure that customers, whether large businesses or individual users, get all the necessary advice and backup they need. It may be possible to enter this area of work with GCSE-level qualifications, although many jobs require qualifications up to degree level.
Ideas for higher education courses The choice of what to study and where to study at higher education (HE) level is enormous. To stand the best chance of success in your studies, you need to choose a subject, or combination of subjects, that you will really enjoy.
If you break the law... Laws cover all aspects of life – civil laws relate to contracts, discrimination, faulty goods and so on; criminal laws relate to burglaries, violent assaults, knife crime etc. Anyone who breaks the law can expect some form of reprimand or punishment. This leaflet explains what happens if you are suspected of a crime.
If you leave a higher education course Every year, thousands of students leave their higher education (HE) course early. This can be for a variety of reasons: poor health, failing exams, or deciding that a particular course – or, in fact, HE of any sort – is not right for them. If you're thinking of leaving your course, this leaflet helps you to consider your next steps.
Illustration Illustrators are commercial artists who create images for books, magazines, adverts and so on. Artistic skills, creativity and the ability to follow a brief are the main requirements for this type of work. Relevant qualifications are available up to higher education level and may help you succeed in this competitive area.
Information for offenders and ex-offenders Having a criminal record can make it difficult to gain employment. This leaflet explains a little about the law that aims to prevent discrimination, and describes some of the organisations that can provide help and advice.
Information for people with disabilities If you have a disability, you may be able to get support to help you access training, find work and progress in your job. Some of the programmes and support available are described in this leaflet. When it comes to finding work, some employers are particularly positive about recruiting people with disabilities.
Information science and related work People who work as information scientists, and in other related roles, are responsible for researching, organising and managing information. They ensure the right information can be delivered to the right person or organisation, at the right time. To work as an information specialist you need to study to at least degree level.
Insurance Insurance offers people and organisations security; it cannot prevent loss or accidents, but it can provide money in compensation. People pay sums (called premiums) into a pooled fund that, in turn, is invested, to make profits that enable insurance companies to cover any claims. Career opportunities exist for people who have a wide range of qualification levels and subjects.
Interested in music? This leaflet outlines the range of jobs that involve music in one way or another. They do not always need great musical talent. There are opportunities involving a wide range of musical styles and activities, including dance music, rock and pop, opera, brass bands and choirs!
Interested in woodwork? This leaflet gives you ideas for jobs involving working with wood, other than the more obvious options of furniture making, carpentry and joinery. There are opportunities ranging from those that need a few GCSEs, or equivalent qualifications, to degree-level work.
Interior design Interior designers plan the living, working and leisure spaces in buildings, ships and aircraft. Buildings include shops, hotels, airports, theatres, offices and private homes. Most, but not all, interior designers have degrees or equivalent qualifications. They can work for an interior design company, but many are self-employed.
Investment analyst Investment analysts conduct research and then advise organisations that invest money on behalf of clients and companies. Investment fund management is a related area of work. These are generally jobs for graduates.
Investment banking Investment banks provide banking services and advice to governments, businesses and some individuals, on a range of financial matters. Although most positions are for graduates, those with professional qualifications and relevant experience are also recruited.
Job applications A single job advert can attract lots of applicants. Just a few of them will get an interview, and usually only one will get the job! How can you make sure you stand a real chance of being considered? It all comes down to making a good impression when you apply.
Job market trends Are you still in education and thinking about future employment, or in work and considering a job move? If so, you may wonder where the future job opportunities will be. This leaflet outlines some of the ways in which work is changing and, where possible, gives expected trends in some of the main sectors in the UK. It also explains what you should do in order to make yourself as employable as possible.
Jobs and careers in textiles Any material made with natural or man-made fibres can be described as a textile. The fibres may be spun, dyed, woven, knitted or printed to make a huge variety of products. Opportunities in textiles exist at all levels, from those requiring few or no qualifications, to degree level and beyond.
Jobs in construction This leaflet provides an overview of the many different jobs available in the construction industry - from bricklaying through to roofing. There are opportunities for those with few formal qualifications, right up to those with degrees or equivalent qualifications.
Jobs in the food and drink industries The food and drink manufacturing and processing industry employs around 400,000 people in the UK. There are jobs in product development, production, quality control, administration and management. Jobs are available at all levels, from those requiring no qualifications to those for graduates.
Jobs on cruise ships Modern cruise ships are like big hotels and need all kinds of staff. Few beginners find work on liners. Cruise shipping companies often use recruitment agencies to find crew members who already have experience and qualifications in hotels and catering, retailing, office work, hairdressing, beauty therapy and other roles.
Jobs requiring few or no qualifications This leaflet suggests jobs that might suit you if you have few or no qualifications. Jobs are grouped according to different areas of interest. Further details on particular career areas can be found in the leaflets listed in the related leaflets section.
Jobs that involve travelling Do you want a job that gives you the chance to get out and about? It might sound more interesting to you than a job based in one place such as in an office, shop, warehouse or factory. This leaflet will give you ideas for jobs directly involved in travel, and others where you may travel in order to do your work.
Jobs with charities It's estimated that around 760,000 people work in paid positions in charities in the UK. These people manage and run the organisations, deal with publicity, raise and administer funds, do research, or work as advisers, coordinators, carers and so on. Entry requirements vary from job to job.
Jobs with trade unions Trade unions represent members who work in a particular industry or occupation. Trade unions affiliated to the Trades Union Congress (TUC) represent around 5.8 million workers in 51 affiliated unions. There are jobs at all levels; for some posts, commitment and experience as a volunteer can be as important as academic qualifications.
Jobseekers' checklist There are other leaflets in this system that give more information about job applications, writing CVs, interviews and finding work. Whether or not you've read them, we hope you will find this a useful checklist. One rule that applies wherever you are in the job-hunting process is, 'don't give up'!
Journalism Journalists report on what's happening in the world. They may work for newspapers, magazines, radio, TV or online media. Some cover international, national or local events; others specialise in different subjects, such as politics, sport, fashion or health. Most entrants are graduates.
Judges and magistrates Judges and magistrates preside over law courts, listen to cases and make judgements on the evidence they hear. They have the most responsible jobs within the legal system. Judges are qualified and experienced lawyers, while magistrates are community-minded volunteers who have usually followed a different profession.
Keeping healthy You can help maintain good health through a combination of physical fitness, a balanced diet, a healthy lifestyle and a positive state of mind. This leaflet looks at each of these factors and gives you some pointers on how to keep healthy.
Laboratory work Laboratory technicians assist professional scientists and technologists in carrying out scientific investigations and experiments. They work in industry, medicine, education and for government-funded bodies. GCSEs at grades A*-C (or equivalent qualifications) are usually the minimum entry requirement.
Land-based engineering Farmers, contractors, sports turf professionals, foresters etc all rely on modern technology to help them with their work. Land-based engineers are responsible for developing, manufacturing, selling and servicing the machinery and vehicles they use. There are careers for engineering graduates, and for technicians and other staff with lower-level qualifications.
Landscape architecture, management and science Landscape architects, managers and scientists plan, create and maintain landscapes to make the areas we live in more pleasant. Landscape professionals have degree-level qualifications. There are opportunities for support staff with lower-level qualifications.
Languages after year 9 Learning another language can bring all sorts of opportunities your way. At school, you will most probably be able to take French, Spanish or German to GCSE level, and other languages may also be available. If you are good at languages, you may be able to take more than one GCSE language.
Laundries and dry cleaning Most laundries are private firms offering services to a range of customers. Hospitals, nursing homes and hotels may have their own laundries. Dry cleaners have shops on the high street and, occasionally, branches in supermarkets. For most positions, no formal qualifications are needed.
Leather production and manufacture Leather production and manufacture are ancient industries. Hides and skins of animals are converted into leather to make items like shoes and bags, and for use in industry. Some of the skills needed for leather production and manufacture can be learned in the workplace and there are courses at all levels.
Leaving home At some point, you will probably decide to leave the family home and find a place of your own. This leaflet takes you through some of the major considerations to think about before you actually pack your bags and head off for a new life!
Legal executives and paralegal work Legal executives are professionally qualified lawyers, working alongside solicitors and barristers in England and Wales. The recommended minimum entry requirement to start training is four GCSEs at grades A*-C or equivalent – although many entrants have higher-level qualifications. Paralegals also deal with the law in all sorts of work settings.
Legal support work A range of support staff deals with the administrative, information and financial areas of legal work. For example, legal secretaries combine their secretarial skills with legal knowledge, while legal cashiers deal with the financial transactions in solicitors' offices. Qualifications required vary, from a few GCSEs to a degree for some positions.
Leisure and recreation management All sorts of organisations are involved in providing access to sport and leisure – local authorities, commercial organisations, universities and colleges, voluntary groups and trusts. It's a popular area of work, so, if you are really keen, aim to achieve the highest pre-entry qualifications you can, both practical and academic.
Licensed conveyancers The legal and administrative work involved in transferring the ownership of a house, flat or piece of land from one person to another is known as conveyancing. This can be done by a licensed conveyancer, a solicitor or a chartered legal executive. To qualify as licensed conveyancer status, you must pass professional exams and gain practical experience in employment. 
Licensed retailing and the pub trade Have you ever thought about working in a pub - or perhaps even running one of your own? There are around 50,000 pubs in the UK. There are also many other outlets where you need licensed retailing skills. You don't always need particular qualifications to start training; the right personality is often just as important.
Living independently after care If you're on a care order it means that the local authority has the responsibility of looking after you until you are 18, unless there are other circumstances. After your 18th birthday you are regarded as an adult, but if you've been in care you will continue to receive support.
Living off the land - small-scale enterprises Living off the land sounds like an attractive way of life, free from the worries of the modern world. But it can be hard work for relatively low pay! You may not need particular qualifications, but you must do a lot of research into running a business, and it's sensible to have relevant work experience.
Local government Local government affects all our lives. Local councils or authorities provide a wide range of services to local communities, and therefore offer a huge variety of career opportunities. Councils vary in size, and employ people with expertise in many different fields and with qualifications at all levels.
Logistics and freight transport management The logistics and freight industry covers air, sea, rail and road transport, as well as its control and management. Some managers work their way up from administrative or driving jobs, but generally companies recruit graduates as management trainees.
Making and repairing clocks and watches Horology is the art and science of making, repairing, restoring and servicing timepieces and measuring devices. It's a specialised craft and horologists need the skills to work with traditional techniques and new technology. For entry to training, you need a sound general education and to be good with your hands.
Making good use of your spare time Making constructive use of the time you have available can open up all sorts of possibilities to enrich your life. Whether you're at school or college, working or unemployed, it can give you a break from the pressures of everyday life. As this leaflet will show, there are all sorts of opportunities.
Making things look good Have you always wanted an artistic type of job, but thought you couldn't get one without a qualification in art and design? For many jobs you just need an eye for shape, colour and layout. Some careers need qualifications in science, computing and/or English, for example, or in specialist subjects. 
Management Managers are crucial to all organisations, no matter how big or small. They set the organisation's aims and objectives, oversee the work and coordinate activities so that everything operates smoothly. Managers are often (but not always) qualified to degree level, or the equivalent, and have plenty of relevant experience.
Management consultancy Management consultants provide objective advice to help organisations meet their long-term goals. Generally a degree, and often relevant work experience, are needed for entry.
Managing your money as a student This leaflet provides information and advice about managing your money while you are a student. Most of the information in this leaflet is relevant to both further and higher education students.
Manufacturing engineering Manufacturing engineering brings together the skills of management and engineering, to find the most efficient and cost-effective way of converting raw materials into finished products. Engineers have degrees or the equivalent, but there are also technician-level jobs for those who enter the industry with lower-level qualifications.
Marine and freshwater biology Marine and freshwater biology is the study of plant and animal life in seas, rivers and lakes. Most jobs in this field are for graduates in biological sciences, but there are some openings with lower-level qualifications, for technicians and laboratory assistants.
Marine engineering Complex machinery and engines are used on ships and offshore installations of every kind. Marine engineers work on the design, construction, operation and maintenance of such equipment. Engineers are usually graduates, but there are also jobs at technician and craft level for people with different qualifications and experience.
Market research Organisations use market research to find out information about the goods and services that people want. Jobs are available at various levels of qualification.
Marketing Marketing is an essential part of any business operation. It is all about understanding the customer and making sure the goods or services that people really want or need are available when, where and how they need them. There are careers for people at various levels of entry.
Materials science Material scientists study materials such as metals and alloys, glass, polymers and ceramics – to see how they behave and how we can make use of them. There are opportunities for trainee technicians with GCSEs or equivalent, and scientists and engineers with degrees and postgraduate qualifications.
Mathematics after year 9 Maths is such an important subject that you have to continue to study it in years 10 and 11. As well as being useful in everyday life, good numeracy skills are an entry requirement for most jobs and courses. Studying maths can help you develop analytical skills and a logical approach to problem solving.
Mechanical engineering Mechanical engineers design and develop products and machinery for almost every industry – from aerospace to healthcare – using combinations of metals, plastics, ceramics and carbon fibre. To work as an engineer requires a degree-level qualification, but with lower-level qualifications you can train to be a craftsperson or technician.
Medical administrative, clerical and secretarial work Administrative and clerical work in healthcare settings is varied. There are jobs for medical secretaries and receptionists, and for staff dealing with medical records and patients' services. Depending on the level of job, employees generally have good GCSEs or equivalent, plus secretarial or professional qualifications.
Medical engineering Medical engineering involves the design, testing and maintenance of complex machinery used in healthcare – from whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners, to smaller items such as pacemakers and artificial knees. Medical engineers are graduates, but there are opportunities for support staff.
Medical illustration and photography Medical illustrators include clinical photographers, medical videographers, medical artists and graphic designers. They are part of the healthcare team, making records for educational, diagnostic, scientific and other purposes. A relevant higher education qualification is required for entry. Specialist qualifications are available.
Medicine - an introduction to the work and training Becoming a doctor involves following a long programme of study and training. Competition to enter this profession is very stiff and selection is based on a lot more than just academic ability. This leaflet outlines the various stages of training, explains where you can work once qualified and tells you how you can find out more.
Meteorology Meteorology is the study of our atmosphere, from the ground to the highest levels – where it becomes 'space'. Changes in the Earth's atmosphere are monitored, and their effects on the weather are analysed and predicted. To become a meteorologist you usually need a degree in maths, physics or meteorology.
Microbiology Microbiology is concerned with the study of micro-organisms – bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. Scientists can specialise in all or just one of these areas. Microbiologists are usually graduates or postgraduates. There are also a few openings for laboratory assistants or support staff.
Midwifery Midwives work with women and their babies during pregnancy, labour, delivery and after birth. Midwives qualify through a degree course in midwifery; there is also a qualification route to midwifery for registered adult nurses. There are opportunities for support staff.
Mining and minerals engineering Mining – the extraction and processing of metal ores and mineral deposits – is carried out all over the globe. Modern society relies on supplies of naturally occurring resources such as copper, iron, coal etc. Finding and producing pure forms of metals and minerals provides jobs for graduate engineers and for other workers with lower-level qualifications.
Modelling Models show off clothes and accessories at fashion events or in photographs. They also pose with products for adverts or features. Modelling may seem an exciting career, but it's very competitive and only a few achieve fame and riches. Entry is based on your physical appearance rather than educational qualifications.
Modelmaking Models are needed for all sorts of situations - to show what a building development will look like, for exhibitions and museums, in product design, for advertising, and for film and TV programmes. While specific qualifications are not essential, many entrants to modelmaking have taken a relevant course, available up to degree level.
Motor vehicle maintenance and repair There is always a demand for skilled motor vehicle maintenance and repair staff. This leaflet describes jobs with motor vehicles, ranging from cars and vans to heavy vehicles such as lorries and buses. There are no set entry requirements to begin training, but most employers expect some good GCSEs, or equivalent qualifications.
Motorcycle and cycle maintenance and repair If you have an interest in motorcycles or bicycles, maintenance and repair work may be an option to consider. This leaflet outlines the opportunities available. Although no set qualifications are required for entry, some GCSEs, or equivalent, may be sought by employers or for entry to training programmes.
Nanny, parent's help and au pair There are various jobs that involve caring for children in a family setting. You could work as a live-in nanny, as a parent's help, or as an au pair. Some employers prefer someone with childcare qualifications, while others will look for the right personality.
Nature conservation Some of the major organisations that protect and care for our countryside are described in this leaflet. Professional staff manage nature reserves. Rangers, practical workers and administrative staff look after the areas on a daily basis. Jobs range from those that require no qualifications for entry through to those that need postgraduate qualifications.
Naval architecture Naval architects are graduate engineers concerned with the design, construction, repair, surveying, conversion and decommissioning of ships, boats and offshore structures. Those with lower-level qualifications can work as technicians.
No offers? Wrong grades? Not every student has a smooth path from A levels (or other level 3 qualifications) to the higher education (HE) course of their choice. There are systems in place to help you if you don't achieve the grades you need for a confirmed place, or if you don't initially get any offers at all.
Non-teaching jobs in schools In addition to teachers, schools and colleges need a variety of other staff to help them to run smoothly and efficiently. The number and range of posts vary from one institution to another; for example, there are opportunities for administrative staff, business managers, pastoral staff, learning resources staff, cover supervisors, school transport escorts, matrons, lunchtime supervisors and laboratory technicians.
Nursery and early years childcare and education People working in early years childcare and education are trained to give a high standard of professional care to very young children. Depending on the level of responsibility you are aiming at, entry can be with anything from a few GCSEs up to a relevant degree.
Nursing - an introduction to the work and training Nursing is a challenging but rewarding career. Nurses can work in many different roles and settings. Training is through an approved degree course; institutions set their own entry requirements. There are also accelerated nurse training programmes for graduates of other subjects.
Nursing in the community Healthcare is increasingly being provided in the community. There are opportunities for nurses to specialise in different areas of work. This leaflet mainly focuses on district nurses, health visitors and school nurses; to undertake specialist training in one of these areas, you first need to be registered with the Nursing & Midwifery Council.
Occupational health nursing Occupational health (OH) nurses promote the physical and mental health of people in the workplace; helping employees to stay healthy is very important to an organisation. You first need to qualify as a registered nurse. Further training is needed to become a fully qualified OH nurse.
Occupational therapy Occupational therapists (OTs) work with people of all ages who have physical, social and/or psychological problems, helping them to live as independently as possible. To work as an OT you need to have taken an accredited degree or postgraduate qualification. Support worker positions are also available, for which there are no set entry requirements.
Oceanography The oceans and seas are essential to sustain life, and their behaviour affects us all. Oceanographers understand and predict how oceans work, and show us how we can both use and conserve the resources they offer. Oceanographers have degrees, and often postgraduate qualifications.
Office equipment servicing Modern offices rely on a wide range of equipment such as photocopiers, fax machines, printers and so on, which needs to be kept in good working order. Jobs involved in repairing and servicing these devices are usually at technician level and, for entry, may require some qualifications and experience in mechanical, electrical or electronics engineering .
Office work - an introduction Office jobs are found in all areas of work – from your local council to small, family-run businesses. There are many types of jobs, all needing different skills and abilities. This leaflet describes various kinds of office work, focusing on roles that do not require high-level qualifications for entry.
Oil refineries When crude oil is extracted from under the ground, it has to be refined to separate out its valuable components. The work is overseen by graduate engineers and scientists. Other jobs range from those requiring a few GCSEs, or equivalent qualifications, to degree level and beyond.
Operating and maintaining cranes and heavy plant Many different machines – such as cranes, excavators, dump trucks and bulldozers – are used in construction. They are called 'plant'. Skilled drivers operate them; plant mechanics maintain and repair them. Employees must be properly trained to use the equipment competently and safely. Qualifications are not always needed to start training.
Operating department practitioner Operating department practitioners (commonly known as ODPs) provide patient care and support before, during and after surgical procedures. You need A levels or equivalent qualifications to start training through an approved higher education course.
Operational research Operational researchers apply advanced analytical methods to help business, industry and government solve problems and make better decisions. Operational researchers have degrees and sometimes postgraduate qualifications.
Opportunities beyond the classroom If you want a change from teaching you may wonder what scope there is for using your qualifications and experience elsewhere. You could use your skills and experience directly, or in a different field. This leaflet is only an ideas generator; the possibilities depend on your particular background and circumstances.
Opportunities in law outside private practice Not all solicitors and barristers go into private practice. Many legal professionals find employment within industry and commerce, the Civil Service - including in magistrates' courts - local government, Law Centres, charities and other bodies.
Opportunities with a degree in any subject While some careers require a particular degree subject for entry, there are many career areas that do not; people can enter these with whatever degree they have studied. This leaflet highlights such opportunities.
Optical work Optometrists check our eyes for abnormality, injury or disease. They also test our vision and, if required, prescribe glasses or contact lenses. To train as an optometrist you start by taking an approved degree. Dispensing opticians fit and supply spectacles – to train, you need at least five GCSEs at grades A*-C, or equivalent.
Options after year 9: an overview Choosing which subjects to take in years 10 and 11 is very important - it can affect your options for the future. The qualifications you gain in year 11 can influence what you do next, in terms of education, training and employment.
Orthoptist Orthoptists diagnose and treat defects of vision and abnormalities of eye movement and coordination. Most orthoptists work in hospitals; others work in community health, providing vision screening. To work as an orthoptist you need to have an approved degree.
Osteopathy and chiropractic People visit osteopaths and chiropractors for the relief of a wide range of medical problems, mostly related to muscles and joints. Both osteopathy and chiropractic involve manipulation by the hands as a form of treatment and are recognised by the medical authorities. Training is at degree level. 
Outdoor work Are you someone who says, 'I don't want to be stuck in an office or a factory all day'? Many jobs involve working outdoors and this leaflet offers some ideas for jobs, at every level, that involve being out and about.
Packaging Almost everything we buy is packaged, using a range of materials. Packaging can protect, inform and, of course, advertise! Getting the design right can be vital to the success of a product. In the packaging industry, there are opportunities at all levels of qualification.
Painting and decorating Starting perhaps with a few GCSEs, or equivalent qualifications, it can take several years of training and experience to become fully qualified and skilled as a painter and decorator. Lots of different techniques and materials are used. You can work for a firm or, with some experience, become self-employed.
Paper and board manufacturing Wherever you go, you'll see paper in use - from pizza boxes to paper napkins. Each type of paper is different, ranging from soft tissue paper to strong cardboard packaging. Papermaking and boardmaking are high-tech industries. There are opportunities for people with every level of qualification.
Parking attendant Parking attendants patrol streets and car parks to make sure that vehicle owners obey the parking regulations and have paid any required parking charges. There are no particular qualifications required for entry, but having the right personal qualities is important.
Part-time work Many jobs are offered on a part-time basis. Frequently, these are jobs within the service industries, but employers in most sectors now offer this type of flexible working arrangement. This leaflet outlines the advantages and disadvantages of working part time, the main ways of working part time and your legal rights.
Patents and trade marks A patent protects an invention from being copied for up to 20 years. Because most patents are for technical devices and processes, trainee patent attorneys and examiners are usually graduates in science or engineering. Protection of trade marks is a related area of work usually needing a degree for entry.
Performing arts after year 9 Music, drama and dance are collectively known as the performing arts. You may be able to take one or more of these subjects at GCSE. Studying performing arts not only improves your performance skills, it also helps to develop your confidence, creativity and teamworking skills.
Pest control Pest controllers protect our health and food supplies. While there are no set entry qualifications, employers may ask for some GCSEs (or equivalent) and you will be expected to gain a qualification in the safe use of rodenticides. Manufacturers of pest control products and research organisations may offer opportunities for laboratory staff and researchers.
Pharmacist Within the healthcare team, pharmacists are the experts in medicines. They supervise the dispensing of doctors' prescriptions. People also go to the pharmacist for advice on non-prescription medicines for minor medical complaints, and for information on the proper use of their prescription medicines. Pharmacists need a degree in pharmacy.
Pharmacology Pharmacology is the science of drugs and how they affect living systems. Pharmacologists research and develop drugs. This is a degree-level profession but there are also posts in laboratories for technicians; entry requirements for these roles vary.
Pharmacy technician Pharmacy technicians work in hospitals, community pharmacies and other settings. Pharmacy technicians work under the supervision of pharmacists, but they are responsible for their own safe and accurate practice. You usually need four GCSEs at grades A*-C, or equivalent, to start training.
Photography Photography is a mixture of art and technology. To take a good photograph involves having an artistic eye to compose the picture, and the technical ability to obtain a clear photographic image. Photography is a very competitive business, but there are entry points at all qualification levels.
Physiotherapy Physiotherapists treat people with a broad range of physical problems. To work as a physiotherapist you need to have taken an approved degree or postgraduate qualification. Assistant-level jobs are sometimes available.
Pilots Commercial pilots are employed by airlines and by organisations providing services such as air-taxi operations, business aviation and flying instruction. Having the right personal qualities is important for this work.
Planning Planners shape our environment. As well as working on house extensions and local green spaces, for instance, they get involved in major projects, help to design skylines and tackle big issues such as climate change. Planning is a graduate profession, but people with other qualifications can enter as support staff.
Planning your future Work is an important part of most people's lives. The choices you make now can affect your whole way of life, so give careful thought to your plans. Don't wait until you are about to leave full-time education; 'panic' choices aren't usually the best ones.
Plant science Plant scientists study plants, fungi and algae - including their structure, taxonomy, genetics, life cycle, distribution and the diseases and pests that can affect them. The work of plant scientists is used in many areas such as conservation, forestry, medicine, agriculture, horticulture and the food industry. Most scientists have relevant degrees.
Plastering Plastering is a 'finishing' trade, carried out when the main structure of a building has been completed. Although no specific qualifications are required to start training, it can take several years of training and experience to become a qualified craftsperson.
Playworker Play is essential for the healthy development of children. Playworkers provide opportunities for children and young people to play in different ways and different settings. Many employers seek trained and qualified playworkers, but there are also opportunities to train while you work.
Plumbing Plumbers install and maintain water and drainage systems in all kinds of buildings. They may work indoors and outside, and are always in demand. Entry requirements vary; you may need certain GCSEs at good grades to start an Apprenticeship.
Podiatrist Podiatrists are specialists in the care of feet and lower limbs. They see patients, diagnose problems and decide upon treatment. To train as a podiatrist, you have to take an approved honours degree. There are also opportunities for podiatry assistants, who do not always need formal qualifications for entry.
Police community support officer Police community support officers - or PCSOs as they are also known - undertake a range of duties. They assist police officers and provide a visible presence on the streets. Formal educational qualifications are not usually required for entry, but you have to pass written tests. It's important to have the right personal qualities.
Police work Police officers are responsible for maintaining law and order, and making sure that the public and their property are protected. They investigate crimes and are concerned with crime prevention. Academic entry requirements vary depending on the force. Entry is competitive and it is essential to have the right personal qualities.
Police, fire or ambulance? This leaflet tells you the basics about working in the fire and rescue, police and ambulance services, and what is required to join. There are more detailed leaflets on each service, listed under related leaflets.
Politics Jobs involved with politics include elected representative (such as an MP, Assembly Member or councillor), party agent and researcher for an elected member. You may need qualifications, in some cases to degree level and, depending on the job, a commitment to a political party. However, an interest in the community may be the most important requirement.
Postal delivery The Royal Mail Group collects, sorts and delivers letters and parcels throughout the UK and overseas, but there are also other delivery companies. There are job opportunities at all levels - from postmen/women and sorting staff who don't usually need any particular qualifications for entry, to careers for graduates.
Practical work If you like being active and using your hands, then some kind of practical job may suit you. Some practical jobs require no formal qualifications for entry; others demand good exam results and/or specific qualifications. This leaflet gives you some ideas to consider.
Press photography and photojournalism A well-timed, attention-grabbing photo adds to the visual appeal of a newspaper and helps communicate information. Press photographers working for national newspapers may specialise – in news, travel or sports photography, for example. Photojournalists work for magazines and some newspapers, and provide the words for a story as well as the pictures.
Printing Printing involves transferring ink, by various techniques, onto paper, card, plastic, glass or metal. Over 122,000 people in the UK are employed in printing – most work for small companies. Opportunities exist for those with all levels of qualification.
Private investigator Private investigators are concerned both with civil legal business and with criminal work. Most investigations are routine, and are made on behalf of commercial organisations and solicitors. No formal educational requirements are necessary, but certain personal qualities are very important.
Probation work and community justice The National Probation Service together with community rehabilitation companies deal with offenders before, during and after their cases come to court. Probation officers and probation service officers have a supervisory role, but also offer guidance to help offenders to redirect their lives. Other community justice workers are employed by a wide range of statutory and voluntary organisations.
Product design Every manufactured object you use has been designed by someone. Product design, or industrial design as it is also known, combines creativity with technical knowledge to design items that perform well, are attractive and are safe and efficient to use. Most designers have higher education qualifications.
Production work in film and TV The film and TV industries are big business, but the jobs mentioned in this leaflet are amongst the most difficult to find. You will be competing with a lot of bright, ambitious and, often, highly qualified people. Many people in the industry work on a freelance basis.
Professional sport To have a career in a professional sport, you need to be very talented. Do you belong to a club and regularly come top in your age group? Are you already playing for your school first team, county or regional team? If your answer to these questions is 'yes', then professional sport may be an option for you, but you need determination!
Property development Property development is all about adapting, redesigning, refurbishing and redecorating property to sell it on at a profit. Developers need to have strong business skills as well as the ability to juggle lots of tasks and work to deadlines. Many people become property developers after working in other areas.
Psychology Psychologists study how people act in different settings and circumstances. They investigate the underlying causes of behaviour, and use their understanding to help people cope with their psychological problems or to reach their full potential. Psychologists normally have accredited degree and postgraduate qualifications.
Public analyst Public analysts test, analyse, inspect and advise on all aspects of consumer health and safety, from drinking water to the disposal of waste. Public analysts are graduate chemists who hold the Mastership in Chemical Analysis. There are opportunities in laboratories for staff with lower-level qualifications.
Public relations Public relations (PR) work covers all the aspects of establishing good relations between an organisation and its public - whether customers, shareholders, the local community or general public. Most PR staff are graduates.
Publishing Publishing is the process of making information available to the public; this may be in the form of books, e-books, magazines, CD-ROMs, apps etc. The industry needs people with a wide range of skills. Many graduates enter publishing, but there are also opportunities for those with lower-level qualifications.
Purchasing and supply Purchasers source raw materials and services from suppliers worldwide, so that their organisations can provide products for end customers. Purchasing and supply managers or officers generally have A levels or equivalent, or a higher education qualification. There are also jobs in purchasing for people with lower-level qualifications.
Quality assurance Quality assurance is a set of activities designed to ensure that adequate levels of quality are being achieved within an organisation. In manufacturing, quality control is part of quality assurance. Craftworkers and technicians check the quality of products and materials. Specialist managers, who set up the systems, are generally trained to degree level and above.
Quarrying Quarrying is about extracting materials such as rock, slate, sandstone, granite, chalk and gravel from the ground. There are jobs for people with every level of qualification and experience, including graduate engineers and geologists.
Receptionists A receptionist is normally the first person you meet when you enter a building. Reception work is popular because it involves direct contact with people. Office skills and a responsible, pleasant personality are the usual requirements.
Refuse/recycling collection and street cleaning Working as a refuse/recycling collector means doing a job that is vital and valued. Keeping public places clean is also an important area of work. Local councils have responsibility for refuse collection, street cleaning and recycling, but the work is sometimes carried out by private firms, under contract.
Registrar of births, marriages and deaths All births, marriages and deaths must be recorded and this is the work of the registrar. Marriages are recorded whether they take place in a church, a register office or elsewhere. Registrars need no specific academic qualifications for entry but need the right skills and personal qualities.
Religious studies and careers Studying religion helps you to understand the beliefs and traditions of different people, and to learn about the things they feel are important in life. It also helps you to think about your own beliefs. As a subject, religious studies helps to develop different abilities, such as communication and analytical skills.
Religious work Every religious organisation has its own 'structure' of leadership and lay (non-ordained) workers. Religious organisations recruit adults with a true vocation to the service of the particular religion and the community. Preparation and training for service varies between different religious organisations.
Retail buyer Retail buyers are responsible for buying (or procuring) stock for shops from manufacturers and suppliers. They need a good understanding of what customers want to buy. Retail buyers generally start their careers in sales or as trainees. Most new entrants have degree-level qualifications.
Retail management Large department stores, supermarkets, chain stores and smaller shops all need staff to manage people, money and stock. Graduates and those with A levels, or equivalent qualifications, are recruited for management training schemes. There are also good prospects for people with lower-level qualifications who have relevant work experience.
Retail work Retailing is an important industry, employing around 4.3 million people in the UK. Retail can offer employees the chance to progress along their career path very quickly. A variety of opportunities exists, with jobs ranging from those requiring very few qualifications, to those at degree level.
Road maintenance Over time, weather conditions and the wear and tear of constant traffic cause road surfaces to break up. Keeping our roads in good repair is an important job. Roadworkers, supervisors and drivers are all needed to help repair roads and construct new ones. Formal qualifications are not usually required for entry at operative level.
Roofing Roofing is a specialist job. There are many different styles of roof and types of roofing. No particular qualifications are needed to start training for craft-level roles. There are also opportunities to train as a roofing technician or manager.
Routes into higher education Although many people start higher education (HE) courses after taking A levels, there are many other routes into HE, including taking a vocational qualification - perhaps while working - or an Access to Higher Education Diploma. This leaflet looks at the various routes into HE.
Royal Air Force The Royal Air Force (RAF) is a highly technical and well-trained arm of our defence forces. This leaflet tells you something about the different jobs and levels of entry – from few academic qualifications to degree level. 
Royal Navy and Royal Marines Opportunities in the Royal Navy and Royal Marines range from operational work on ships and aircraft, through to supply and medical positions. Vacancies exist at all levels, from jobs needing no qualifications for entry to careers for graduates.
Running your own shop Although supermarkets and chain stores account for most sales, the majority of shops are small businesses. They usually specialise in particular products, such as stationery, fashion or gifts. Retail qualifications can help if you want to run your own shop, but are not essential. You will need lots of determination, organisational skills and to be prepared for hard work!
Rural crafts This leaflet covers careers in thatching, saddlery, farriery, blacksmithing and wrought ironwork, and dry stone walling. Other rural crafts where there may be opportunities are also briefly described. Some crafts take many years to learn.
Sales demonstrating Demonstrators work mainly in shops, supermarkets, DIY outlets and department stores, demonstrating items such as gadgets or food products. Usually, they are employed by an agency or by the product manufacturer, rather than by the stores in which they work. Qualifications are not normally needed, but a cheerful, outgoing personality is a must.
Sales representative Sales representatives sell a company's goods or services. They usually have to find new customers or clients and their pay often depends on their success. Qualifications are not generally needed for entry, except where technical or scientific knowledge is expected.
Science and related subjects after year 9 All students must study science in years 10 and 11. Science is a useful subject that opens doors to a wide variety of careers. For some courses and jobs, GCSE qualifications in science are essential.
Scientific careers - an introduction Qualifications in science can lead to opportunities in a range of fields including the development of new materials, the pharmaceutical industry, renewable energy, environmental work and teaching. You can get into a basic scientific job with GCSEs or the equivalent. However, with science and technology continually advancing, most opportunities require qualifications at degree level or above.
Sea fishing Sea fishing involves working in a difficult and sometimes dangerous environment. Catches of various types of fish are sorted and may be processed at sea. Large freezer trawlers may be away for weeks at a time. Apprenticeships offer an entry route into this work.
Secretaries and personal assistants Secretarial jobs are given a range of titles including executive secretary, personal assistant (or PA), administrative secretary, team secretary or just 'secretary'. The levels of responsibility can vary greatly - as can the work setting. Entrants usually need at least good GCSEs, or equivalent qualifications.
Security systems installation and locksmithing Locks have been around for thousands of years, but the more recent development of electronic security systems and internet-integrated systems has increased the options available for people who want to protect their property and valuables. There are no set entry requirements for this type of work.
Security work Security work means protecting property, goods, money, individuals and communities. An estimated 500,000 people are employed in security roles. Some organisations, such as certain shops, banks, councils and airports, employ their own staff; others hire security firms. Entry requirements vary, but the right personal qualities are very important.
Serving food and drink Many food service assistants, waiters, waitresses and bar staff work in Britain's restaurants, cafés, pubs, nightclubs, fast-food outlets and for contract catering companies. They create an important impression of the organisation. You don't need particular qualifications to get into this work, but you do have to be welcoming and efficient.
Sexual health and you If you are sexually active, it's important to protect yourself and your partner/s from sexually transmitted infections. This leaflet helps you understand the need to be sexually responsible and know what to do if you think you may have an infection.
Shipbuilding and boatbuilding Shipbuilding involves the building of large vessels, mainly of steel. Boatbuilding, on the other hand, involves the construction of smaller vessels from steel, wood, glass fibre, composites or other materials. There are opportunities in building and repair work at every level, from craftspeople to graduate designers and marine engineers.
Shoe repairer Most shoe repairs are done by people working in town centre shops and kiosks. Repairers don't only mend shoes – they may also provide other services such as key cutting and engraving. No formal entry requirements are needed to start work in the shoe repair business.
Shopfitting Shopfitters work with many different materials to turn an empty space into a retail outlet that is attractive and inviting, and that will encourage shoppers to spend their money. You can start training on the job and work towards qualifications.
Signmaking Traditional, handcrafted signwriting has almost disappeared because of the introduction of computer-aided design (CAD), plastic and resin-based materials and new production methods. Modern firms of signmakers can offer customers both sign design and production. No particular qualifications are required to start training.
Skills for employment You've got the qualifications and the motivation... What else do you need to persuade an employer to give you a job? Whether you're a year 11 school-leaver or a graduate, this leaflet will tell you about the skills employers demand and how you can go about developing these all-important skills.
Social support work Some people need support to help them to cope with or overcome difficulties or problems they encounter in their daily lives. Social support workers can offer a wide range of help, in a variety of settings. There are opportunities for those starting with few, if any, formal qualifications.
Social work Social work is about supporting individuals and families with all sorts of problems, the roots of which may lie, for example, in unemployment, illness or disability, poor housing, low income or old age. Helping people to come to terms with – or to solve – their problems is not an easy job. Social workers, therefore, need professional training and the right personal qualities.
Sociology and anthropology Sociology and anthropology are concerned with the study of humans. Sociology is the study of the behaviour of people, and the relationships between them within social groups, in developed societies. Anthropology compares human societies and cultures. Criminology is a related area of study. Degree and postgraduate courses are available in all these subjects.
Software engineering This leaflet describes specialist technical work in computing - those jobs involved in the analysis, design, development and programming of computer software and systems. Most entrants hold a degree or equivalent-level qualification.
Solicitors Solicitors are legal specialists. They provide skilled legal advice, and represent clients in court when necessary. Most solicitors work in private practice. To become a solicitor you normally need to gain a degree and then undertake further study and training, although there are other routes to qualifying.
Sound recording Recording studios make high-quality sound recordings for the entertainment industry. The electronic and digital equipment used is very complex and expensive, and skilled operators are required to get the best results. To work in this business you usually need technical qualifications, coupled with an interest in music.
Special effects work Whenever you watch films, stage extravaganzas, TV dramas or just the adverts in between, you will have seen special effects. There are opportunities for people with qualifications at all levels, although some entrants are graduates.
Specialist careers in the Civil Service The Civil Service supports the work of the Government. There are specialist posts in all departments where particular knowledge or skills are required. There are also agencies and bodies that recruit people in both specialist and general posts. Most, but not all, specialist posts are open only to graduates, or to people with appropriate professional qualifications.
Specialist cleaning services This leaflet describes opportunities for work in which you specialise in cleaning windows, carpets, chimneys, motor vehicles or textiles. Many people work in these occupations on a self-employed basis, or you could be employed by a specialist cleaning company. Academic qualifications are not usually required for entry.
Specialties in medicine and surgery After taking a degree in medicine and the two-year Foundation Programme, doctors need to decide whether to train in a specialty in medicine or surgery, or in general practice. Apart from the well-known medical careers (such as a doctor in accident and emergency or a surgeon), there are many other specialties. This leaflet outlines your main options and tells you how you can find out more. 
Speech and language therapy Speech and language therapy helps adults and children overcome speech, communication and swallowing problems. Trained therapists work in hospitals, schools, community clinics and clients' homes. Therapists need an approved degree or postgraduate qualification, but there are also assistant-level opportunities.
Sponsorship, scholarships and charitable trusts In addition to the financial support offered by the state, some employers, professional bodies and universities run schemes that help fund students on further education (FE) and higher education (HE) courses. This is usually with the aim of attracting the best people into their organisation or industrial sector. Charitable trusts may also offer financial support for those in need or from certain disadvantaged groups.
Sport and exercise science The work of sport and exercise scientists involves applying scientific ideas to improve sport and exercise performance. There are also opportunities for those with a background in medicine, physiotherapy, psychology and engineering. You need an appropriate degree to get started. Postgraduate qualifications are available.
Sport and PE after year 9 As there are so many different sports available, you should be able to find something you enjoy. Activities at your school may include gymnastics, football, netball, hockey, rugby, tennis, athletics, basketball, badminton, dance and swimming. Most schools offer GCSE physical education (PE) or other qualifications in sport.
Sports and leisure centre assistants Sports and leisure assistants help to run the various sports, recreation and exercise activities available at sports and leisure centres. Evening and weekend work is all part of the job. You need good practical skills and an ability to work well with people. Relevant qualifications are needed for entry to some jobs.
Sports development work Sports development involves promoting sport (or a particular sport) and encouraging people to get active. Sports development workers ensure that everyone, regardless of their background, age, gender, ethnicity or ability, has the opportunity to participate. Most people working in this area are graduates with coaching qualifications.
Starting work It's a big step, moving from full-time education into a job. You may need some advice to deal with the change in your lifestyle and in understanding your rights and responsibilities. If you're unsure about anything at work, don't be afraid to ask for help. Everybody was new once; they'll understand.
Statistics Statisticians work with figures – collecting, analysing and interpreting data. They work in a variety of settings, including government departments, medical research, business and industry. A degree is normally required for entry.
Staying safe online It can be fun and exciting meeting new people online, but there are risks involved. Unlike meeting someone in the real world, you can never be totally sure who you are chatting to online and what their intentions are. Stay safe by following a few simple guidelines.
Steeplejack Steeplejacks carry out building, maintenance, repair and renovation work on tall structures such as chimneys. A related job is lightning conductor engineer, also described in this leaflet. No particular qualifications are needed for entry to training.
Stone cleaning and surface repair Over time, dirt and fumes from traffic blacken buildings and monuments, while the weather and other factors can also cause damage. Stone cleaners and surface repairers work to get buildings looking as good as new. Specific qualifications are not normally needed to start training for this area of work.
Stonemason Stonemasonry is one of the oldest crafts in the construction industry. The work is highly skilled and involves repairing and restoring stonework on old buildings, and preparing and fitting stonework for new buildings. No particular educational qualifications are required to start training.
Study skills Learning is a two-way process. Teachers provide information and help develop your skills, but you also have a contribution to make. What you get out of education is partly down to what you put in. This leaflet explains some of the ways you can get the most out of your learning experience.
Surveying - an introduction to the work and training Surveying involves the measurement, valuation, management, development and protection of all types of property, buildings, land and marine environments. Chartered surveyors normally take an accredited degree or postgraduate qualification followed by practical training, but other routes are available. There are opportunities for support staff.
Surveying: property Property surveying is about the valuation, costing, management, marketing, protection and maintenance of land, buildings and other property. Chartered surveyors have degree-level qualifications. There are also opportunities for support staff.
Surveying: resources Some surveyors become specialists in the Earth's resources - the land itself, settlements, the oceans and the Earth's crust. Chartered surveyors have degree-level qualifications. There are also opportunities for support staff.
Taking a stand against bullying You can be bullied at any age. It can happen in school, on the street, in the workplace, on the bus, anywhere. It can be a one-off experience or it can go on almost every day. It can hurt people and destroy lives. Sometimes, however, people don't know they're bullies and sufferers don't realise they can do something about it.
Taking a year out Every year, some people decide to step off the conveyor belt of education, training or work – just to spend time away from their normal lives. Some young people delay, or defer, their entry to higher education. Others take a gap year after graduating, before starting work. However, you can take a career break at any time in your life.
Tattooing and body piercing Tattooing has seen a surge in popularity in recent years, amongst people of all ages. It is common to see people adorning their bodies with anything from small butterflies to whole sleeve tattoos. Likewise, ear piercing and body piercing allow people to decorate themselves with jewellery. Local bye-laws are in place to make sure the practices are safe.
Teaching - an introduction to the work and training Teachers help children, young people and adults to learn by developing their knowledge, understanding and creative thinking. To teach in state schools, you need to study at least to degree level. There are also other requirements, e.g. GCSEs at certain grades in English and maths, or equivalent, and, for early years and primary teaching, science.
Teaching assistants Teaching assistants (TAs) provide support to both pupils and teachers. They work in all kinds of educational settings including nursery, primary, secondary and special schools, and in further education. Opportunities range from those that need few formal qualifications, to those requiring specialist training.
Teaching English to speakers of other languages English is the number one language used in business and for communications around the globe, so the worldwide demand to learn English is great. Many language schools look for graduates who have successfully completed a recognised training course.
Teaching in further and higher education Teachers in further education (FE) teach students aged 16+ (sometimes younger) on academic and vocational courses at various levels. Most employers expect them to have, or be working towards, an appropriate teaching qualification. Teaching in higher education (HE) usually requires postgraduate qualifications, and is often combined with academic research.
Teaching in nursery and primary schools Teaching young children is a responsible and rewarding job. Teachers can develop a child's enthusiasm for learning, which may remain with them for the rest of their lives. To become a qualified teacher, you need to gain Qualified Teacher Status (QTS). This involves studying to at least degree level.
Teaching in secondary schools Unlike teachers in primary schools, secondary school teachers are almost always specialists in one subject area. To gain Qualified Teacher Status (QTS), you need to take your studies to at least degree level.
Teaching overseas There are various openings for people to work overseas as teachers. Some are paid teaching posts, including teaching English as a foreign language (TEFL); others are voluntary. Opportunities exist for qualified and experienced teachers but, even for those without formal teaching qualifications, there are opportunities to teach English.
Teaching people with special educational needs and disabilities Special educational needs teachers work with children, young people and adults with physical disabilities, hearing or visual impairment, learning disabilities, emotional problems, challenging behaviour etc. Teachers generally have a few years' teaching experience before they move into this area.
Technical work in film and TV Technical staff work behind the scenes to help create films and TV programmes. Most jobs require specific skills that can be gained through specialist courses and experience. There are opportunities at all levels, from those requiring GCSEs at grades A*-C, or equivalent, to those for graduates.
Technical writing Technical writers – also known as technical authors or technical communicators – write leaflets, handbooks, sales brochures, reports, operating instructions, training manuals and online materials etc. They need subject knowledge, as well as the ability to write in clear, concise English. Some – but not all – have degree-level qualifications.
Technology and related subjects after year 9 Technology is a very broad subject. Your may decide to take a GCSE in design and technology or, if on offer at your school, another course in a technology based subject. If you like solving problems, and planning and working towards creating a finished product, then technology will probably appeal to you.
Temporary work In recent years there has been a gradual increase in the number of workers on fixed-term or temporary contracts in the UK. Employers want a flexible workforce, without keeping on unnecessary staff during quiet times. This applies to jobs at all levels. This leaflet offers information and advice about different types of temporary work and mentions various things you should consider.
Textile and surface design Textile and surface design includes the design of fabrics, wallpaper, carpets and tiles. A range of suitable courses is available, from those needing GCSEs for entry, to postgraduate courses. Most designers are graduates.
The Armed Forces This leaflet is an introduction to joining the Armed Forces. More detailed information can be found in other leaflets listed in the related leaflets section. Recruitment can be at all levels, from people with no GCSEs to graduates. The Forces recruit both males and females, from all backgrounds, for a variety of jobs.
The Army Joining the Army is very different from starting a civilian job. Soldiers have to accept military discipline – you can't let just anyone loose with a loaded machine gun! As well as a combat force, the Army needs engineers, doctors, chefs, drivers and people who are able to do lots of other jobs. Entry is possible with all levels of qualification.
The basics: administration, business and office work This leaflet introduces you to the many different jobs there are in administration, business and office work, and tells you where you can find out more.
The basics: building and construction This leaflet introduces you to the many different jobs there are in building and construction, and tells you where you can find out more.
The basics: catering and hospitality This leaflet introduces you to the many different jobs there are in catering and hospitality and tells you where you can find out more.
The basics: computers and IT This leaflet introduces you to the many different jobs there are in computing, and information and communication technology (ICT) and tells you where you can find out more.
The basics: design, arts and crafts This leaflet introduces you to the many different jobs there are in design, arts and crafts and tells you where you can find out more.
The basics: education and training This leaflet introduces you to the many different jobs there are related to education and training and tells you where you can find out more.
The basics: engineering This leaflet introduces you to the many different jobs there are in engineering and tells you where you can find out more.
The basics: environment, animals and plants This leaflet introduces you to the many different jobs there are involving working with animals, plants and in the environment and tells you where you can find out more.
The basics: financial services This leaflet introduces you to the many different jobs there are in financial services and tells you where you can find out more.
The basics: healthcare This leaflet introduces you to the many different jobs there are in healthcare and tells you where you can find out more.
The basics: languages, information and culture This leaflet introduces you to the many different jobs there are in the fields of languages, information and culture and tells you where you can find out more.
The basics: legal and political services This leaflet introduces you to the many different jobs there are in legal and political services and tells you where you can find out more.
The basics: leisure, sport and tourism This leaflet introduces you to the many different jobs there are in leisure, sport and tourism and tells you where you can find out more.
The basics: manufacturing and production This leaflet introduces you to the many different jobs there are in manufacturing and production and tells you where you can find out more.
The basics: marketing and advertising This leaflet introduces you to the many different jobs there are in the fields of marketing and advertising and tells you where you can find out more.
The basics: media, print and publishing This leaflet introduces you to the many different jobs there are in the media, print and publishing industries and tells you where you can find out more.
The basics: performing arts This leaflet introduces you to the many different jobs there are in performing arts and tells you where you can find out more.
The basics: personal and other services This leaflet introduces you to the many different jobs there are in personal and other services, including hair and beauty, and tells you where you can find out more.
The basics: retail sales and customer services This leaflet introduces you to the many different jobs there are in retail sales and customer services, and tells you where you can find out more.
The basics: science, maths and statistics This leaflet introduces you to the many different jobs there are in the fields of science, maths and statistics, and tells you where you can find out more.
The basics: security and Armed Forces This leaflet introduces you to the many different jobs there are in security and the Armed Forces and tells you where you can find out more.
The basics: social work and counselling services This leaflet introduces you to the many different jobs that involve helping or caring for other people, and tells you where you can find out more.
The basics: transport and logistics This leaflet introduces you to the many different jobs there are in transport and logistics, and tells you where you can find out more.
The chemical industry The chemical industry is one of Britain's largest areas of manufacturing. It produces a vast range of refined chemicals that are used to make many other products, from shampoos to pesticides. The industry employs people at all levels.
The commercial leisure industry Many people enjoy using their free time to take part in activities such as bowling, going to the cinema or visiting theme parks. The commercial leisure industry therefore provides a wide range of opportunities for people to manage and run these activities. Depending on the job, entry requirements range from a few GCSEs to a degree.
The cost of gambling A lot of people like to place an occasional bet, e.g. on a major sporting event, or spend a pound or two on the lottery each week. This kind of gambling is fun. However, some people take gambling far too seriously – in fact, to the point where it can become an addiction and land them in debt.
The facts about smoking Smoking tobacco is a form of drug taking that is legal for both adults and young people. However, it is illegal to sell tobacco in whatever form to anyone under the age of 18. Smoking is becoming less popular in the UK and is now recognised all over the world as a serious danger to health and to life.
The fire and rescue service Firefighters work in highly trained teams. They are called to all sorts of emergencies, not just fires. Increasingly, they are concerned with fire prevention. Men and women with the right skills and aptitudes can become firefighters as long as they meet the required entry standards.
The foundry industry The foundry industry manufactures engineered products using the process of metal casting. Hot, molten metal is poured into a mould and solidifies to the required shape. People with few qualifications can train as foundry workers, but craftspeople and trainee technicians normally need some GCSEs at grades A*-C, or equivalent. There are also opportunities for graduates.
The meat industry There is a variety of job opportunities in the meat and poultry industry. As well as the familiar high street butchers, there are jobs with abattoirs, meat and poultry processors, wholesalers, manufacturers and supermarkets. There are training opportunities for new entrants with few qualifications, to those with degrees.
The Merchant Navy Ships carry over 90% of the goods transported to and from the UK. A ship's crew is made up of officers, who are responsible for running the ship, and ratings, who carry out routine tasks. To enter training, you normally apply for sponsorship by a shipping company or training group.
The offshore oil and gas industry A significant proportion of Britain's primary energy comes from offshore oil and gas installations. There are opportunities in the industry at all levels, from graduate engineers and scientists to operatives with few academic qualifications. Roles may be land-based or involve working offshore.
The plastics and rubber industries Plastics and rubber belong to the group of materials called polymers, which can be processed to suit many different purposes. They have high-tech uses in aerospace, computers, communications and medicine, and are used in a wide range of everyday products. There are jobs in the industry for people with all levels of qualification.
The railway industry The railway network carries millions of passengers, parcels and tonnes of freight each year. To meet the customers' needs, some routes operate 24 hours a day, seven days a week. Most rail companies recruit locally. There are opportunities at all qualification levels.
The stock market Many companies raise the money they need for growth by issuing shares that investors buy through the stock market. The Government also raises money through issuing bonds to investors. This leaflet describes the work of stockbrokers and traders who buy and sell stocks and shares; most are graduates.
The timber industry Timber has been used for thousands of years, and it is still a very important raw material. It is widely used in construction and for making furniture. Although nearly all timber handling and machining processes are automated, there are jobs for craft operators and wood machinists, as well as for experienced and qualified managers.
The value of being confident and assertive Being confident and assertive can help you get the most out of life. There may be times when you lack confidence or find it hard to speak up for yourself, but it is possible to develop your self-confidence and learn how to be assertive.
The water industry Shortages of water in certain areas of the country in recent years have made us more aware of the importance of our water supply. Thousands of people work to make sure that water is always there for us and is safe to use. There are opportunities in the industry at all levels.
Tiling Tilers use their skills to provide finished surfaces that are clean and practical - and often decorative - in all sorts of buildings. Most wall and floor tiles are ceramic, porcelain or stone. No specific qualifications are usually required to start training.
Trading standards and consumer protection An unsafe electrical gadget, fake designer clothing and a cheap bottle of vodka that's not quite what it seems. Dealing with these, and similar concerns, is the responsibility of trading standards officers and their support staff. Entry to training is possible from GCSE to graduate level.
Translating and interpreting It may surprise you to learn that only a tiny percentage of language graduates end up working as translators, and even fewer as interpreters. You have to be very fluent in your chosen language(s) to be able to make a living at either. A postgraduate qualification is often required or, for some jobs, useful for entry.
Travel and tourism Travel and tourism is one of the largest industries in the country - millions of holidays are sold and over 34 million overseas visitors come to the UK each year! There are opportunities for those with qualifications ranging from a few GCSEs, or equivalent, to higher education qualifications.
Trichology Trichologists work with people who have hair problems, such as thinning hair and scalp disorders. Entrants to training should be educated to higher education level and have an interest in scientific and health-related subjects.
Under school leaving age and working. What's legal? If you are at school and want to do some part-time work, this could provide you with valuable work experience as well as some money! However, you do need to be aware of the various regulations. This leaflet provides some basic information.
Understanding alcohol Alcohol is everywhere in our society and many people enjoy a drink. Although it's one of the few legal drugs, its effects can be powerful. Misuse of alcohol is responsible for death and disease on a wide scale. It can also damage people's lives in other ways.
Understanding drugs This leaflet describes how various drugs can affect your physical, emotional and mental health. There are risks involved in taking any street drug, but some medicines and household substances also have the potential to be misused. The penalties associated with possessing and supplying controlled drugs are severe.
University interviews Nowhere near all applicants for higher education courses are interviewed, but if you are invited for a university interview, this leaflet will help you prepare. It gives advice, tips on what to expect, and alerts you to sources of further information. 
Upholstery Upholsterers add the padding and stuffing to furniture - such as chairs and sofas - and fit the outer coverings. They can work on new furniture or on re-covering old pieces. To start training, practical ability may be more important than academic qualifications.
Useful websites There are various websites offering information and advice on careers, education, training, job hunting and job vacancies, as well as on other issues that may be of interest, such as relationships, health and so on. This leaflet provides a starting point – there are many others you may find equally useful.
Vehicle parts distribution and supply In the motor industry, vehicle parts operatives have a vital role to play; they supply vehicle components to garages, dealers, distributors and the public. You need a good general education to get started in vehicle parts work. You then gain technical knowledge while working and through training.
Veterinary nurse Veterinary nurses work with vets to provide care and treatment for animals and to make sure that the practice runs smoothly. You qualify by taking a Level 3 Diploma in Veterinary Nursing, or a foundation degree or degree approved by the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons (RCVS).
Veterinary surgeon Veterinary surgeons (vets) care for animals, preventing and curing diseases and treating injuries. Some vets work in town surgeries, mainly looking after family pets; some have country practices treating farm animals; others look after every kind of animal. Vets can also work in research or in teaching. All vets start by taking a degree in veterinary science/medicine.
Voluntary opportunities in the UK If you want to spend time doing activities that benefit others or the environment, there are all sorts of opportunities. Millions of us volunteer to do some kind of organised activity each year – anything from a few hours of fundraising, to spending several months assisting the homeless at an inner-city hostel.
Voluntary opportunities overseas This leaflet provides information on finding voluntary work abroad. Some opportunities are for those with professional qualifications and skills, while others do not have particular requirements. The majority of organisations expect voluntary workers to finance their own travel, and many require them to provide funding towards their placement.
Warehouse work The handling, storage and onward movement of goods and materials around the country is a vast and complicated business. To keep pace with the demands of manufacturers and retailers, warehouse work is available at all levels, from jobs that require no qualifications for entry, to positions for graduates.
Waste management We live in a world that produces huge quantities of waste – domestic, commercial and industrial. Controlling and disposing of waste is a technical and complex process; a high standard of education is required for management posts, often to degree level. There are other jobs that need lower-level qualifications.
Welding, sheet metalwork and spray-painting Metalworkers and spray-painters are employed in many different industries. With suitable GCSEs, it is possible to start training through an Intermediate or Advanced Apprenticeship.
When a family breaks up One of the most painful experiences for a family is when parents divorce or partners separate. Whatever the reason, the splitting up of a family unit can be upsetting for everyone involved. However, the breakdown of a relationship doesn't have to destroy the people involved.
Wholesaling Wholesaling is a vital part of the distribution chain. Wholesalers provide a service to both manufacturers and retailers: manufacturers can distribute their products through a limited range of wholesalers, and retailers can go to a wholesaler for a wide range of products. There are opportunities for people with all levels of qualification.
Wise up to mental health There are lots of different types of mental health problems - from depression to phobias - and numerous causes. It's estimated that every year one in four of us experiences some form of mental health problem; anyone can suffer, regardless of their age or background. This leaflet describes some of the most common mental health problems and explains how you can get help.
Wondering about your sexuality? As we grow from a child into an adult, we experience changes in our body. We begin to develop sexual desires and start to evolve into sexual beings – meaning, we become either heterosexual, homosexual or bisexual. This is called our sexuality. When all this happens, it can be quite confusing.
Wood machinist Wood machinists are employed in factories and joinery companies. They produce components for the building industry, such as windows, doors and skirting-board, and items for the furniture industry, such as kitchen cabinets and bedroom furniture. To start training you need the right aptitude; GCSEs, or equivalent qualifications, are not essential, but may be useful.
Work experience While still at school or college, you may have the opportunity to do a work experience placement; this might form part of your course if you are taking a vocational qualification. This leaflet explains the benefits of work experience and will help you get the most out of it.
Work in multimedia and interactive media The multimedia/interactive media industry has developed very quickly over the last few years. This leaflet outlines some of the career opportunities available. Many people working in this area hold degree or equivalent qualifications, but entry with lower-level qualifications is possible.
Work with languages For a variety of jobs you have to be able to communicate in one or more foreign languages. The obvious examples are to work as a translator or interpreter, but there are many more. Some jobs need you to be completely fluent, while for others it's enough to be able to hold a basic conversation. Entry requirements vary from GCSEs to postgraduate qualifications.
Work-related programmes after year 9 If you would like to find out about a broad area of work, or feel ready to spend some time on more practical tasks, there are certain courses and programmes that may suit you. This leaflet describes some of the work-related options in years 10 and 11.
Working at airports This leaflet is about people who work at airports, but who rarely leave the ground! The range of jobs is very wide, from flight operations to engineering or security roles. Most jobs involve shift work, which can include nights and weekends. There are jobs for people with all levels of qualification.
Working for a tour operator Tour operators organise all the component parts of a holiday – hotel bookings, flights and transfer arrangements etc – and sell them as a package, either directly to the public or through a travel agent. There are opportunities at all levels, working behind the scenes as well as with the holidaymakers.
Working for EU institutions The European Union (EU) is currently made up of 28 countries (or member states) that work in partnership for the benefit of their citizens. Almost 40,000 people work for the institutions and agencies that make and implement EU policies and laws. Entry requirements vary.
Working for the Civil Service The Civil Service is an extremely varied and complex organisation. Its role is to support the work of government ministers. Civil servants are needed to perform a wide range of tasks, and there are positions for people with every level of qualification.
Working for the environment Many people want a career that involves protecting the environment. There are jobs that need specialists, and others requiring a variety of skills, knowledge and experience. Opportunities are available at various levels, although many positions require a degree or postgraduate qualification.
Working for yourself People of all ages and backgrounds decide to work for themselves. If you have an idea, and becoming self-employed appeals to you, it's important to think it through carefully and take professional advice. 
Working from home An increasing number of people now work from home. This can mean using your home as a base from which to travel, or working at home – in a room or workshop. You may be employed by someone else, work on a freelance basis or run your own business.
Working holidays and temporary jobs abroad This leaflet highlights some of the things to consider when thinking of taking a working holiday or finding temporary work abroad. It also lists some sources of further information and organisations offering opportunities - which range from working on a campsite in France to rounding up cattle in Australia!
Working in a factory Production and process workers do basic, routine tasks in factories and workshops. These jobs do not often require any lengthy training, and you do not usually need formal qualifications to get started. There are opportunities for promotion, for example to supervisory posts.
Working in a holiday centre There are all sorts of jobs in holiday centres, at sites in the UK and abroad. Opportunities are available for those interested in entertainment, administration, sales, security, bar and catering work, retail, maintenance etc. People with qualifications at all levels are needed.
Working in a supermarket There are jobs in supermarkets for checkout operators, shelf fillers and warehouse staff. Qualifications are not normally required to start. Large supermarkets sometimes offer extra facilities, e.g. a pharmacy, which may require staff with specific qualifications. Many jobs are part time.
Working in a travel agency Travel agencies offer a complete service to the prospective holidaymaker or traveller. They sell holidays, flights, accommodation and other services to the general public. There are no set entry requirements, but employers may look for some GCSEs at grades A*-C, or equivalent.
Working in auctions Auctions are public sales where buyers make bids for goods, and the goods are sold to the highest bidder. Entry requirements for this sort of work vary, but to become an auctioneer for one of the major auction houses a degree may be required. There are various support jobs for those with other qualifications.
Working in business The business world covers such a wide variety of employers and levels of responsibility that you should be able to find something to suit you! This leaflet outlines the main jobs and qualifications available, and points you to where you can find more detailed information.
Working in court services There are various jobs that help to keep the different courts of law running smoothly. Positions range from those requiring legal qualifications and training, to those where no particular qualifications are needed for entry but you have to have the right personal qualities.
Working in energy distribution and supply Once energy has been generated, it has to find its way to our homes, places of work etc. Many people are employed to ensure that there is a safe supply of gas and electricity. There are job opportunities at all levels, from those requiring few or no qualifications for entry, to careers for graduate engineers.
Working in energy generation Modern industrial nations rely heavily on energy – whether provided by gas, coal, oil etc, or renewables such as wind and wave power. Engineers and scientists are involved in generating energy from a range of sources. There are opportunities at all levels.
Working in fast food In a fast-food restaurant or takeaway, you only need to learn a few straightforward tasks, but you have to do them well! The skills are mostly learned on the job. You don't need particular qualifications to start, but you must be well organised, fast, efficient and helpful to customers.
Working in health and safety There are career opportunities in health and safety, both in the community and in the workplace, at all levels. Many jobs require relevant experience and, for some, a degree or a postgraduate qualification is required. Science and technology subjects are useful, but you also need to be a good communicator.
Working in hospitality Whether you work for an international hotel, run your own catering business, manage a restaurant or serve drinks in a pub, working in hospitality means providing an efficient service to people wanting food, drink or accommodation. Jobs range from those that need no formal qualifications, to others requiring training or qualifications up to degree level.
Working in housing Housing is one of our basic needs, and many people live in publicly owned housing or other rented accommodation. People working in housing are responsible for the planning, construction, allocation and upkeep of rented properties. There are opportunities at all levels, but many managers have degree-level qualifications.
Working in industry The word 'industry' has come to be used for many areas of work activity, but it usually means the manufacture and production of materials and goods in a factory. In industry, there are all sorts of jobs for people with all levels of qualification, from work on the factory floor to management.
Working in libraries and information services Library and information work is about managing access to information held in books, computer databases and other information storage systems. Advances in information technology have transformed the work of library and information staff in recent years. There are jobs for graduate professionals and more routine work for library assistants.
Working in ports UK ports are vital to the economy as they handle around 95% (by volume) of the country's imports and exports. Jobs range from those needing no qualifications for entry, to careers for graduates.
Working in prisons Most prisons in England and Wales are operated by HM Prison Service, although some are privately run. As well as keeping offenders securely in custody, prisons also provide education, training and counselling to help offenders make a fresh start, and to deter them from re-offending. You need to pass a series of tests and assessments to become a prison officer.
Working in private households Many families and individuals employ people to give them help around the home. Working in a private household may require such skills as childcare, cooking, driving or cleaning. Prior training is not always essential, but employers will expect you to have excellent references.
Working in residential childcare Residential childcare involves working in centres or homes for children of all ages. You could be looking after children with special educational needs and disabilities or those who have been taken into care. There are jobs ranging from those for professional social workers to residential childcare workers who must work towards relevant level 3 qualifications once in employment.
Working in the clothing industry Although you may get the impression that all our clothing is now manufactured overseas, there is still a clothing industry in the UK! There is a wide range of different jobs in the industry, from those requiring no qualifications, up to degree level.
Working in the gambling industry There are jobs in the gambling industry at betting shops, race tracks, bingo clubs and centres, arcades and casinos, and with lotteries and online gambling sites. People are employed for a wide range of roles and with all levels of qualification.
Working in the media The media industry includes newspapers, magazines, publishing, radio, TV broadcasting, film production and interactive media companies. Its glamorous image means that competition to get started is tough. Many people working in the media are graduates, although entry is possible with lower-level qualifications.
Working in the motor industry With over 35 million licensed vehicles on the road in the UK, career opportunities in the motor industry are many and varied. There are jobs that need no qualifications for entry, up to graduate-level positions. This leaflet gives an overview of the various career areas, and points you to other leaflets in this system where you can find out more.
Working in training Training officers, managers and consultants help organisations to identify staff training needs and organise training and development. Instructors and trainers carry out the training itself. A degree may be needed for higher-level careers but, for some jobs, vocational training and relevant experience can be as important as academic qualifications.
Working overseas There are lots of opportunities to work overseas. It's difficult to generalise about jobs abroad as they often have little in common, especially in terms of the education, qualifications and skills necessary. However, this leaflet is a starting point - it outlines some initial considerations and the main types of work available.
Working with animals Working with animals appeals to many people. This leaflet gives you the basic facts about various jobs involving animals, and lists a range of other leaflets that give more detailed information. As in most areas of work, the higher the qualifications you gain, the more responsible the jobs open to you.
Working with birds There are very few opportunities for those seeking a career in ornithology. For posts that do arise there is strong competition between well-qualified and experienced people. The more relevant experience you can offer, the more likely it is that you will find a suitable position.
Working with children Besides primary school teaching or working in a nursery, there are lots of jobs that involve working with children. For some of these jobs qualifications are not essential, but for others it is necessary to study up to higher education level.
Working with dogs There are careers with working dogs, racing dogs or domestic pets. In many jobs, you need to be good with people as well as with dogs. Interest and aptitude are often more important than academic qualifications. Some experience of dog handling and training, with your own or other people's pets, is often expected.
Working with horses A variety of jobs involve working with horses. There can be great enjoyment in the work, but it's not enough just to like horses - you need plenty of dedication and motivation and you have to be prepared for hard work. To get started, the right attitude may be more important than qualifications.
Working with older people There are lots of jobs where you can work with older people; most come under the broad areas of caring, social work and health-related work. Whatever your level of qualifications and your particular interests, you should find something to suit you.
Working with people If you want to work with people, what do you mean by that? This leaflet helps you think it through, and lists various job ideas for you to consider.
Working with people who need care and support People who need care and support include people with learning or physical disabilities, and those who have mental health problems. The information below gives you an idea of the range of possible job opportunities that involve providing care and support; for more details on these jobs and their entry requirements, see the related leaflets section.
Writing for a living Although people can make a living through writing, only a few famous authors make millions from bestselling novels. However, more people have regular jobs writing for newspapers, magazines, adverts, even for stage or screen. Many writers - but not all - have academic qualifications.
Writing your UCAS personal statement Your personal statement is an important part of your UCAS application because it is this, along with the statement from your referee, on which admissions tutors rely heavily when deciding whether to offer you a place. So it's worth investing time and effort into producing it!
You and your money It's a lot easier to spend money than it is to earn it! So whatever your situation, learning to manage your money is absolutely essential. Overspending causes all sorts of problems - it can damage your relationships and your health, and make it harder for you to achieve your ambitions.
You can do anything! When choosing courses, training programmes or careers, don't let a false start, disadvantaged background or other people's prejudices put you off from doing what you want to do! Although we can't all be life-saving surgeons or professional footballers, you should aim to reach your potential. To do this, you have to make decisions based on what suits you.
Your rights as a young person - an introduction As with adults, young people have certain rights and responsibilities. This leaflet gives a brief outline of a young person's rights as a citizen, consumer and employee. More importantly, it lists sources of more detailed or specialist help and advice.
Youth work Youth workers help young people to develop their skills and qualities to the full, both as individuals and as members of society. Youth work can be done on a voluntary or paid basis. Youth work professionals need a degree. Nationally recognised qualifications are also available for youth support workers.
Zoology and animal science Zoologists and animal scientists specialise in the study of animals. Zoologists are concerned with wild animals, insects, birds and so on, while animal scientists mostly focus on farm animals, horses and pets. If you have a degree in zoology or animal science, there are various career options.
Zoos and wildlife parks In Britain, there are many zoos, wildlife/safari parks, bird gardens and aquariums open to the public. Competition is keen for any jobs that arise. Jobs range from those for people with few or no academic qualifications to research posts for postgraduates.

Why Choose Adviza

Adviza has supported thousands of young people and adults to make better decisions that help them move forward in learning and work. Our careers advisers are experienced professionals who hold the Level 6 QCF in guidance and are on the national Register of Careers Practitioners. We are a National Careers Service prime contractor and the chosen provider of impartial information, advice and guidance services for over 100 schools and colleges.

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